BioScientific Review 2024-05-17T11:16:04+00:00 Dr. M. Sohail Afzal [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">BioScientific Review (BSR) is an open-access peer-reviewed journal published on a quarterly basis. It provides a modern and multidisciplinary platform for free and fast publications broadly covering all aspects of life sciences. Research in the field of life sciences has grown at a bewildering pace during the last decade and BSR intends to publish momentous advances in all specialized areas of life sciences and bring them to light.&nbsp;</p> Spam and journals with similar titles may threaten the standing of established medical journals 2024-05-16T11:31:13+00:00 Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva [email protected] <p>The modern scholarly journal is faced not only with the challenge of upholding its principles in order to attract a continuous stream of authors to maintain its publishable status, it also needs to be wary of unscrupulous players that lurk in the global knowledge stream that pose an existential threat by diverting academics away from their journal using unfair or underhanded practices. It is not always easy to distinguish predatory from exploitative, or underhanded from unfair practices, and even the use of or reliance on publishing blacklists does not offer would-be authors a guarantee of a safe journal selection to publish in. Authors and journals live in a volatile publishing environment with constant threats, sometimes to each other. In medicine, this can translate into reputational damage to the journal if fake science or pseudoscience is published since the journal’s reliability for medical information is at stake. For authors, especially younger or less experienced ones whose entire careers depend on early advances, a publishing mistake, such as submission to a hijacked or copycat journal that impersonates the real or original journal, can carry with it long-term negative reputational and career-altering damage.</p> 2024-05-16T11:31:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva Clinical biomarkers of Dyslipidemia in Diabetes Mellitus Type II Patients 2024-05-16T11:31:53+00:00 Ali Afzal [email protected] Robina Kausar [email protected] Sana Aslam [email protected] Nayab Shahid [email protected] Suneela Aman [email protected] Muhammad Zohaib [email protected] Amna Rehman [email protected] Nimra Afzal [email protected] Mudassir Hassan Abbasi [email protected] Nadeem Sheikh [email protected] Muhammad Babar Khawar [email protected] <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aims to comparatively investigate clinical biomarkers of diabetic dyslipidemia in TIIDM patients and healthy controls with no clinical diabetic history. A cross-sectional study was conducted and sera of 100 TIIMD patients and 100 age-matched control subjects were evaluated from 2019 to 2022 in the district headquarters hospital Narowal, Pakistan. Various biomarkers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TRG) were measured for each subject. <strong>Results:</strong> Results showed significantly higher levels of TC (238 ± 30 mg/dl), TRG (201 ± 72 mg/dl), and LDL (141 ± 47 mg/dl) in TIIDM patients compared to control groups TC (167 ± 23 mg/dl), TRG (175 ± 75 mg/dl), and LDL (95 ± 30 mg/dl). However, HDL levels were significantly lower (46 ± 21 mg/dl) in TIIDM patients compared to control group (54 ± 27 mg/dl). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> These clinical biomarkers of dyslipidemia are effective risk predictors for cardiovascular diseases in low-income countries like Pakistan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-05-16T11:24:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ali Afzal , Robina Kausar, Sana Aslam, Nayab Shahid, Suneela Aman, Muhammad Zohaib, Amna Rehman, Nimra Afzal, Mudassir Hassan Abbasi, Nadeem Sheikh, Muhammad Babar Khawar High Frequency of Gram-negative Bacilli (GNB) Pathogens in Wounds and Other Clinical Specimens: A Grave Public Health Concern 2024-05-17T11:16:04+00:00 Seerat ul Urooj [email protected] Shaista Bano [email protected] Sarfraz Ali Tunio [email protected] Babar Aijaz Memon [email protected] Shah Muhammad Abbasi [email protected] Zainab Rajput [email protected] <p><strong>Background.</strong> Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) including <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> are important causes of both hospital and community acquired infections in human beings. In this regard, the current study aimed to assess the frequency of GNB pathogens circulating in Hyderabad, Sindh and to obtain locally applicable data for the prevention and spread of infections caused by GNBs.</p> <p><strong>Methodology.</strong> A total of 360 clinical specimens including blood, pus, wound, urine, sputum, and body fluids from suspected indoor and outdoor patients were collected from various diagnostic centers of Hyderabad, Sindh. The isolation, identification, and characterization of GNB pathogens was performed by using standard conventional methods including morphological, cultural, and biochemical testing.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> A total of 143 GNBs were isolated and characterized in the current study. The data demonstrated that male patients were more affected with GNBs accounting for 55.94% (<em>n</em>=80) of infected specimens, whereas 44.06% (<em>n</em>=63) of specimens were from female patients. Moreover, specimen wise data of sample positivity revealed that 13.29% (<em>n</em>=19) of GNBs were isolated from pus specimens, 58.59% (<em>n</em>=70) from urine specimens, 34.97% (<em>n</em>=50) from blood specimens, 1.40% (<em>n</em>=2) from fluid specimens, and 1.40% (<em>n</em>=2) of GNBs were isolated from sputum specimens. Bacteriological profiling revealed that 41.26% (<em>n</em>=59) of the isolated bacteria were <em>E. coli, </em>considered as the predominant bacteria isolated from urine specimens. Whereas, <em>S. enterica </em>serover Typhi was the most frequently isolated bacteria from blood specimens accounting for 20.28% (<em>n</em>=29) of all bacteria. Other less prevalent but important pathogenic bacteria included <em>K. pneumoniae </em>accounting for 12.59% (<em>n</em>=18) of all bacteria, <em>P. aeruginosa </em>accounting for 8.39% (<em>n</em>=12) of all bacteria,<em> Acinetobacter </em>spp<em>. </em>accounting for 6.99% (<em>n</em>=10) of all bacteria, and <em>Enterobacter </em>spp. accounting for 2.10% (<em>n</em>=3) of all bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> To conclude, the high frequency of GNBs isolated from clinical specimens at Hyderabad, Sindh poses an alarming situation and warrants an urgent need to monitor and control the spread of pathogenic bacteria.</p> 2024-05-17T11:14:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Seerat ul Urooj, Shaista Bano, Sarfraz Ali Tunio, Babar Aijaz Memon, Shah Muhammad Abbasi, Zainab Rajput Antioxidant Properties of Azadirachta Indica Leave Extracts 2024-05-16T09:08:47+00:00 Shabbir Hussain [email protected] Maleeha Hafeez [email protected] Muhammad Riaz [email protected] Shazma Massey [email protected] Amina Asghar [email protected] Atif Javed [email protected] <p><em><strong>Background:</strong></em><em> Azadirachta Indica</em> is an important medicinal plant commonly found in India, Africa, America, Europe, and many other regions of the world. The current study was designed to investigate the concentrations of important phenolic/flavonoid contents of ethanolic extracts of <em>Azadirachta Indica</em> (neem) leaves (Lahore, Pakistan).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the presence of three phenolic compounds (gallic acid, sinapic acid, and caffeic acid) and two flavonols (Myricetin and Kaempferol). The plant extract contained the highest and lowest concentrations of myricetin acid (26.41µg/g) and kaempferol (3.35µg/g) among flavonols, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Both acids are helpful in the manufacturing of antioxidant medicines. Among phenolics, sinapic acid (45.73µg/g) and gallic acid (1.96µg/g) were present in highest and lowest concentrations in plant leaves, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Gallic acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, and kaempferol possess antioxidant and therapeutic potential and are highly beneficial for human health. Human beings can get many benefits and produce more medicines from the leaf extract of neem in the future. Many more advantages can also be taken from different parts of neem (leaves, seeds, and bark).</p> 2024-05-16T09:00:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dr Shabbir Hussain, Maleeha Hafeez, Muhammad Riaz, Shazma Massey, Amina Asghar, Atif Javed Seroprevalence and Hematological Investigation of Toxoplasmosis in Women of Lahore, Pakistan 2024-05-17T10:02:37+00:00 Rafia Tabassum [email protected] Ansar Zubair [email protected] Asma Abdul latif [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">Background.</span></strong></em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;<em>Toxoplasma gondii&nbsp;</em>is responsible for toxoplasmosis infection. Human beings and most warm-blooded animals are infected by this parasite, though the primary host of this parasite is the felid family.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>The current study was designed to assess the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and to investigate the hematological changes in the female human population of Lahore, Pakistan.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">Methodology.</span></strong></em><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;</span></em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">For this research, 150 blood samples were collected from women being treated at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore, along with other details. Of these, 90 samples were selected for the analysis of hematological changes by using a hematology analyzer. The serum of these samples was analyzed to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis by using the ELISA technique. All the information was collected with the help of a questionnaire and analyzed to find out the risk factors.&nbsp;</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">Results</span></strong></em><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">.</span></em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: #0e101a;">&nbsp;The overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the female human population in Lahore was found to be 27%. The prevalence rate was 31% and 24% among pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Similarly, women who underwent abortion had a high prevalence rate (66.6%) as compared to normal pregnant women (25.6%). In pregnant women, infection was more prevalent in the third trimester of pregnancy (43.7%), as compared to the first (28.5%) and second (20%) trimesters. The prevalence rate was higher in those women who had contact with cats or any other pet animal. The hematological parameters of the samples were also examined. In seropositive women, the levels of Hb and PCV declined, while the counts of lymphocytes and neutrophils considerably increased. Abnormal concentration levels of ALT and AST enzymes were also observed in seropositive women.</span></p> 2024-05-17T04:45:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rafia Tabassum, Ansar Zubair, Asma Abdul latif Toxic Effects of Lead Chloride (PbCl2) on Behavioral, Hematological, and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Labeo rohita 2024-05-17T05:50:02+00:00 Moazama Batool [email protected] Saima Naz [email protected] Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha [email protected] Qurat Ul Ain [email protected] Asma Irshad [email protected] Mamoona Mahmood [email protected] Asma Aziz [email protected] Ghulam Abbas [email protected] Fatima Yasmin [email protected] <p><strong>Background.</strong> Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic metal in aqueous environments. Fish are highly susceptible to the lethal effects of lead exposure since it induces toxicity in fish, with oxidative stress causing neurotoxicity. Moreover, lead affects immune responses in exposed fish. This study aimed to determine the numerous lethal effects of lead exposure, comprising oxidative stress, immune responses, and neurotoxicity. It also aimed to identify its indicators to assess the degree of lead toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Method.</strong> Freshwater fish <em>Labeo rohita</em>, (number of fish = 60), with body weight (70–120 g), were divided into one control and three experimental groups namely T1, T2, and T3 (0.44mg/l, 0.89mg/l, and 1.34 mg/l), randomly. For comparative analysis of changes in hematological and biochemical parameters, samples were collected on 7<sup>th</sup>, 14<sup>th</sup>, and 21<sup>st</sup> day.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> &nbsp;There was a significant increment in WBC. While, RBCs count, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit were significantly decreased in treated groups as compared to the control group. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MHC) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) indicated a non-significant reduction in lead treated groups as compared to the control. On the other hand, serum biochemical parameters comprising total proteins (TP), albumin, and globulin reduced significantly (p&lt;0.05). Simultaneously, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and glucose significantly (p &lt; 0.05) increased in the treated groups compared to control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The study showed that lead chloride exposure can adversely alternate hematological and biochemical parameters in <em>Labeo rohita</em>, even in minor concentrations</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Saima Naz, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Moazama Batool, , Mamoona Mahmood , Asma Aziz , Ghulam Abbas, Asma Irsha Protective Effect of Commonly Used Foods and Natural Products against COVID-19 2024-05-17T06:18:53+00:00 Faheem Mustafa [email protected] Waffa Ali [email protected] Remesah Noor [email protected] Aiza Talat [email protected] Mahnoor Maqsood [email protected] Hafsa Tahir [email protected] Mouvez Zeeshan [email protected] Rabiatul Adawiyah Binti Umar [email protected] Shanthi Krishnasamy [email protected] Wan Rohani Wan Taib [email protected] Atif Amin Baig [email protected] <p>COVID-19 caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus has swiftly turned into a pandemic, leading to an ongoing health crisis worldwide. This disease has a zoonotic origin, and its symptoms range from asymptomatic, mild to severe, potentially leading to death.&nbsp; Given its pandemic nature, researchers around the world have expedited efforts to find the treatment. While synthetic drugs have been developed for treatment, their efficacy is still under evaluation, and their side effect is the primary concern. This situation necessitates the need to explore treatment options that are not only effective but also safe. Natural products could help COVID-19 prevention and treatment given their historical role in the treatment of other viruses such as HIV, MERS-CoV, and influenza. This study aims to evaluate the potential role of natural products against COVID-19, their mechanisms of action, and previous use against other viruses. This study aims to evaluate the potential role of natural products against COVID-19, their mechanisms of action, and previous use against other viruses. &nbsp;The comprehensive review focuses on natural products such as ginger, garlic, clove, black pepper, red pepper, black seeds, honey, turmeric, onion, ginseng, and thyme. The findings aim to contribute valuable insights to the development of anti-COVID-19 natural products.</p> 2024-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Faheem Mustafa, Waffa Ali, Remesah Noor, Aiza Talat, Mahnoor Maqsood, Hafsa Tahir, Mouvez Zeeshan, Rabiatul Adawiyah Binti Umar, Shanthi Krishnasamy, Wan Rohani Wan Taib, Atif Amin Baig