BioScientific Review 2022-11-26T07:13:10+00:00 Dr. M. Sohail Afzal Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">BioScientific Review (BSR) is an open-access peer-reviewed journal published on a quarterly basis. It provides a modern and multidisciplinary platform for free and fast publications broadly covering all aspects of life sciences. Research in the field of life sciences has grown at a bewildering pace during the last decade and BSR intends to publish momentous advances in all specialized areas of life sciences and bring them to light.&nbsp;</p> Evaluation of Methyl Eugenol Doses against Bactrocera zonata S. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Ber fruit Orchard in Bahawalpur, Pakistan 2022-11-26T06:07:50+00:00 Allah Bakhs Muhammad Waqar Hassan Sohail Maqsood Ghulam Sarwar <p>Among the fruit flies, <em>Bactrocera zonata</em> S. (Diptera: Tephritidae) is native to South and Southeast Asia. It is commonly found in India and Pakistan but it is also found in more than 20 countries in Asian and African regions. In this study, fruit fly male annihilation traps containing different doses of methyl eugenol (ME) attractant, ranging from 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 ml dose, and a control treatment (water only) were analyzed.&nbsp; Additionally, a uniform application of one milligram of toxicant Trichlorfon applied in all traps was installed in a Ber orchard in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The prime purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of ME doses against <em>B. zonata</em> in this region. Apart from this, knowledge of seasonal population change could help in controlling these pest insects. Therefore, experiment data for the population was recorded on fortnightly basis from Feb 7, 2018-April 04, 2018 and onward on a weekly basis till May16, 2021 after which the population started to decline. No fruit fly adults were attracted to traps containing water only during all observed dates. Maximum population of <em>B. zonata</em> on Feb 7, 2018, was 3 at ME concentrations of 0.2 ml, 0.75 ml, and 1.0 ml, on Feb 21, 2018, its population was 0.667 at 0.2 ml concentration, on March 07, 2018 the population was 14.667 at 1.0 ml concentration, on March 21, 2018, the population was 3.667 at 0.5 ml concentration, on April 04, 2018, the population was 60.333, on April 11, 2018, the population was 69.000 at 1.0 ml concentration, on April 18, 2018, the population was 94.667 at 0.5ml concentration, on April 26, 2018, the population was 400.670, on May 02,2018, the population was 247.333, on May 9, 2018, the population was 181.667, and on May16, 2018, population was 20.667 at 1.0 ml concentration of methyl eugenol. Thus, more concentrations of ME usually attracted more flies. <em>B. zonata</em> population remained low in February and March. In April the population started to build up and reached its peak at the end of April. In May, the population started to decrease and it declined after mid-May. Correlation with weather factors showed that temperature had a positive while relative humidity showed a negative effect on <em>B. zonata</em> population. This above collected data gave useful information about the population dynamics of fruit flies in the Asian region and an effective attractant dose for the better management of these fruit flies.&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-25T06:51:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Ghulam Sarwar, Muhammad Waqar Hassan, Allah Bakhs, Sohail Maqsood Combined Effect of Honey, Neem (Azadirachta Indica), and Turmeric against Staphylococcus Aureus and E. Coli Isolated from a Clinical Wound Sample 2022-11-26T06:13:46+00:00 Sumaira Mazhar Waqar Saleem Beenish Sarfraz <p>Antimicrobial resistance has become evident all over the world. Resistance to antibiotics has become a concern in case of a wide variety of bacterial species, both pathogenic and commensal. More recently, <em>E. coli, pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus,</em> and<em> Enterococci </em>were found to be adversely affecting the healthcare structures of the world, particularly where acute and long-term care facilities are available. Microbial species were identified by Vitek compact-2 and MALDI-TOF, while antibiogram sensitivity was checked using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion and well diffusion method. The study used 20 wound samples from five (5) men and fifteen (15) women. Thirty-four (34) purified colonies of bacteria were created, in which 8 were <em>E. coli</em> and 2 were <em>S. aureus</em>. The effects of neem, turmeric, and honey with ethanol extracts showed the maximum zone of inhibition against clinically isolated <em>E. coli,</em> such as PM33C4 and AM25C4. While, methanol extract also showed the maximum zone of inhibition against PM56C4, AF34C4, and PM57C4, using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. Correspondingly, the effect of neem, turmeric, and honey with ethanol extracts showed maximum inhibition against <em>S. aureus</em>. Whereas, methanol extract showed a sensitive zone of inhibition only against PM54C1 using the disc diffusion method. Hence, it was determined that natural ingredients such as honey, turmeric, and neem are an effective alternative to antibiotics because they manifest excellent antimicrobial activity against clinical bacterial isolates.</p> 2022-11-25T06:53:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sumaira Mazhar, Waqar Saleem, Beenish Sarfraz Synthesis, Structural Elucidation, and Biological Potential of Novel Sulfonamide Drugs 2022-11-26T06:17:37+00:00 Shabbir Hussain Shakila Riaz Hajira Rehman Muhammad Shahid Syed Mustansar Abbas <p>Sulfonamides are anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agents used widely for the treatment of infections. The current research dealt with the synthesis of four sulfonamides formed by the reaction of <em>p</em>-toluenesulfonyl chloride with 4-amino phenyl acetic acid, 5-amino isophthalic acid, 4-piperidine carboxylic acid, and toluidine. The respective structures of sulfonamide drugs were verified by elemental analysis (CHNS), FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. The elemental analysis (CHNS) data conformed to the proposed chemical composition of the products <strong>1</strong>-<strong>4</strong>. The FT-IR spectra verified the formation of sulfonamide drugs. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of data in the range of 25-800<sup>o</sup>C showed that the evolved components and residues were in good agreement with the molecular skeletons of the products. The antibacterial potential of sulfonamide drugs was evaluated against bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method. The zones of inhibition were found to be larger against <em>Escherichia coli</em> as compared to <em>Bacillus Subtilis</em>. Cytotoxicity of products was in the acceptable range of 0.3-3.1%, as compared to triton X100. It indicates the safety of these products as future medicinal drugs for human beings.&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-25T06:55:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shabbir Hussain, Shakila Riaz, Hajira Rehman, Muhammad Shahid, Syed Mustansar Abbas Antibiogram Analysis of Salmonella paratyphi A Isolated from Gall Bladder Patients in District Peshawar, Pakistan 2022-11-26T06:24:19+00:00 Muhammad Nazir Uddin Alveena Mukhtiar Muddasir Khan Ghadir Ali Wajid Khan Taj Uddin <p><em>Salmonella</em> <em>paratyphi</em> <em>A</em> harbors gall bladder in the human body. It serves as a site of persistence for <em>Salmonella</em> <em>paratyphi</em> <em>A</em>. It is an enteric pathogen which has become resistant to many drugs. Therefore, the current study was designed for the identification and antibiogram analysis of <em>S</em>. <em>paratyphi</em> A, isolated from the gall bladder patients undergone cholecystectomy. It included 250 samples of bile, stone, and tissue of patients. The samples were cultured on blood, macConkey, and <em>Salmonella Shigella </em>media. Further identification was carried out by morphological oxidase test and Analytical Profile Index (API) strips, followed by antibiogram analysis of the isolates. In the current study, twenty-eight (11.2%) <em>paratyphi</em> A were isolated including 10 (10%) from male patients and 18 (12%) from female patients. Furthermore, 96 samples were found to be positive for miscellaneous growth including 53 with <em>S. typhi</em> (21.2%), 13 with <em>Escherichia coli</em> (5.2%), 09 with <em>Klebsiella</em> (3.6%), 07 with <em>Providencia</em> (2.8%), 05 with <em>Pseudomonas</em> (2%), 03 with <em>Proteus</em> (1.2%), and 06 with <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (2.4%). The distribution and susceptibility pattern of <em>S. paratyphi</em> A isolates was checked in different types of clinical specimens including bile, stones, tissue, bile/stones, bile/tissue, stones/tissue, and bile/stone/tissue. <em>S. paratyphi</em> A was distributed as follows: bile (11), stones (5), tissue (3), bile/ stones (4), stones/ tissue (1), bile/tissue (1), and bile/stones/tissue (3). The results of the antibiogram analysis found that the isolates of <em>Paratyphi</em> A were resistant to sulfamethoxazole 23 (82.14%), cefixime 23 (82.14%), ceftriaxone (rocephin) 20 (71.42%), augmentin 19 (67.85%), and azithromycin 18 (64.28%). The increased susceptibility of these isolates was towards meronem 28 (100%), imipenem 28 (100%), cefoperazon + sulbactam (sulzone) 25 (89.28%), and amikacin 23 (82.14%). The current study signifies the use of the most susceptible and effective antibiotic options for gall bladder diseases complicated by <em>S</em>. <em>paratyphi</em> A, which showed resistance to ceftriaxone (rocephin), cefixime, sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, and augmentin, while sensitivity to meropenem, imipenem, cefoperazone + sulbactam (sulzone), and amikacin. It makes the latter a better choice for treatment against the gall stone disease complicated with <em>S</em>. <em>paratyphi </em>A infection.</p> 2022-11-26T05:32:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Nazir Uddin, Alveena Mukhtiar, MUDDASIR KHAN, Ghadir Ali, Wajid Khan, Taj Uddin Fish Diversity at Head Panjnad and its Genetic Identification by DNA Barcoding Technology 2022-11-26T07:13:10+00:00 Saima Naz Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha Durali Danabas Saba Iqbal <p>This study was conducted at Head Panjnad, Pakistan to collect information about the available fish diversity. The evident fish orders found were siluriformes, anabantiformes, cypriniformes, cichliformes, osteoglossiformes, and synbranchiformes. The highest number of <em>Hypophthalmicthys molitrix</em> and the lowest number of <em>Wallago attu </em>were determined from this diversity. Simpson diversity index (D) and Shannon-Weiner index (H) were measured as 0.94938868 and 3.00940719, respectively. After the keen observation of various diversities at Head Panjnad, these fish species were selected for their COI gene and phylogenetic analysis. COI is the Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit 1 of mitrochondria (a gene sequence used in molecular investigations as a DNA barcode). The K2P (Kimura two-parameter) distances measured within species, genus, family, and order were 0.57%, 0.63%, 0.68%, and 0.77%, respectively. The K2P neighbor-joining tree was built on a commonly clustered species sequence in agreement with its taxonomic classification. The purpose was to create QR codes based on DNA sequences for accurate fish species identification. The current work concludes that COI sequencing might be used for fish species identification.</p> 2022-11-26T05:33:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Saima Naz, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Durali Danabas, Saba Iqbal Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Concerning Hormonal Condition and its Bodily Impact on Women 2022-11-26T07:04:33+00:00 Saba Saeed Taskeen Aslam Eman Javed Maria Choudhary Maria Lateef Rimsha Mazhar Bajwa <p>Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hormonal disorder that can have severe health consequences for women. It arises in the early puberty stage and affects a large percentage of the world’s population. While the exact cause is unknown, it’s known to cause hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, menstrual irregularities, and ovulatory dysfunction, all of which can lead to infertility and endometrial cancer. Long-term cardiometabolic risks and comorbidities are seen in both slim and obese PCOS patients. Given these serious implications, it’s critical to fully comprehend the pathophysiological relationships that underpin PCOS, so that better treatment plans can be developed and the standard of living for women with the condition may improve. This condition is diagnosed using three separate criteria. Rotterdam criterion is mostly utilized for PCOS diagnosis. Different symptoms of PCOS are treated in different ways. It’s imperative to comprehensively treat these patients as soon as possible in order to help them cope with the emotional burden associated with the disease that is often ignored. PCOS can be managed by early diagnosis and long-term treatment, allowing women to maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoiding long-term complications, including metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.</p> 2022-11-25T06:58:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Saba Saeed