BioScientific Review (BSR) <p>BioScientific Review is an open-access peer-reviewed journal published on a quarterly basis. It provides a modern and multidisciplinary platform for free and fast publications broadly covering all aspects of life sciences.</p> School of Science, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US BioScientific Review (BSR) 2663-4198 The Diversity of Non-Vascular Land Plants (Bryophytes) in the Kakkayam Forests of Kerala, India <p>The current study on the bryophytes of Kakkayam Forests, Kerala, India revealed about 20 species of these plants documented in the study area. These documented species are classified in 13 families and 15 genera. The current observation also found that out of the 20 documented species 9 are common, 6 are uncommon and 5 are rarely distributed in the study area. More bryo-explorations are essential in unexplored areas for its proper documentation and conservation.</p> Bichin Sheena Surendran Biunu Thomas Copyright (c) 2019 BioScientific Review (BSR) 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 1 4 01 09 10.32350/BSR.0104.01 The Correlation between Alpha-fetoprotein and Liver Function Tests <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level is a good indicator of important pathological stages in patients with chronic liver diseases. This study aims to investigate the alpha-fetoprotein level in male and female patients and to correlate it with other liver functions tests (LFTs), such as ALT, AST, total albumin and total protein.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>A total of 100 patients within the age range 20-85 years who visited Shaukat Khanum Laboratory in Lahore were recruited for this study. Automated chemiluminicence microparticle immuno assay and immulite 2000 (CMIA, siemens USA) were used to measure serum AFP level. To measure serum ALT and AST, Architect 8200 kit (Abbott, USA) was used with a reference range of 0-50 U/L, according to the manufacturer’s protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Out of the total 100 samples (55 males, 45 females), 47 samples (47%) had normal AFP level (&lt;5IU/l) and 53 samples (53%) had high AFP level (&gt;5IU/l). A higher frequency of elevated AFP was observed in men at 60.38%. There was no significant correlation of AFP level with ALT (p= 0.38, r2= 0.002), T.P. (P. value= 0.7635 r2= 0.002) and albumin levels (p= 0.07, r2 =0.041). However, a significant correlation was found between AFP and AST levels (p= 0.02, r2= 0.15).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong></p> <p>Our study found a higher AFP level in older population (&gt;60) as compared to the younger people (20-40) and a higher frequency among males (60.38%) as compared to females (39.63%). It also found that AFP level significantly correlates with AST level but does not show any association with ALT and albumin levels.</p> Shahid Ali Aqib Nazeer Imran Tipu Copyright (c) 2019 BioScientific Review (BSR) 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 1 4 10 19 10.32350/BSR.0104.02 Age-wise and Gender-wise Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in Lahore, Pakistan <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the Pakistani population has been reported previously, however, studies with a city-oriented approach and focus on age and gender distribution are very limited. Therefore, the current study was designed to unravel the age-wise and gender wise prevalence of HBV in Lahore, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>A total of 350 blood samples of both male and female patients who visited National Genetic Laboratory, Lahore between February 2019 and July 2019 and who were suspected of HBV infection were screened. Sandwich based ELISA was used to detect rapid hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Real time PCR was used to detect HBV using HBV Rotor Gene PCR kit.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Out of 350 blood samples screened for HBV infection (n= 350), 180 (51.43%) were of males and 170 (48.57%) were of females. Mean age (years) with SD (standard deviation) of the screened population was 37.22 ± 12.16 years. Overall, 224 samples (64%) were found to be positive for HBV infection. In our study, the number of females with this infection (52.24%) was slightly higher than males (47.76%). However, we observed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.225) between them.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Our study concludes that HBV is highly prevalent in Lahore, Pakistan. Females are slightly more susceptible to HBV infection as compared to males. This study also reports that HBV is more prevalent in the 20-40 age group.</p> Aqib Nazeer Shahid Ali Imran Tipu Copyright (c) 2019 BioScientific Review (BSR) 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 1 4 20 28 10.32350/BSR.0104.03 Comparative Analysis of PCR and LIPA Method for HCV Genotypes Screening <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem worldwide. About 6% of the population of Pakistan is suffering from HCV infection. HCV has a high mutation rate and consists of seven genotypes and sixty-seven subtypes. Genotype information of patients infected with HCV is significant for its treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, 416 HCV serum samples were collected and HCV prevalence rate was studied in different districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Nested PCR and INNO LIPA HCV-II were used for HCV genotyping and their respective performance was evaluated. This study was conducted by the approval of Lahore Clinical Laboratory and Research Centre situated at Shadman, Lahore.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The highest prevalence of HCV was found in Shekhupura district followed by Bhakkar, Narowal and Okara districts, respectively. In Punjab, the most prevalent genotype was 3a (70.29%), followed by genotype 1 (5.47%), untypable genotypes (5.44%) and genotype 3a/3b (4.64%). Nested PCR was found to be more reliable than INNO LIPA-II. Nested PCR results were more accurate and only 5 samples remained untypable whereas 33 samples could not be typed by LIPA method.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study was focused on the comparative analysis of Nested PCR and LIPA method for screening HCV genotypes and their prevalence in different districts of Punjab, Pakistan. HCV genotyping is important since different genotypes require different therapeutic treatments. In Punjab, 3a is the most prevalent genotype followed by non-typable genotypes. LIPA is the most commonly used HCV genotype assay but this study found Nested PCR to be a highly sensitive and cost-effective method in this regard. This study can lead to the better selection of genotyping methods and treatment.</p> Asma Akhter Mahwish Javed Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2019 BioScientific Review (BSR) 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 1 4 29 38 10.32350/BSR.0104.04 Insights into Chemical Interaction between Plants and Microbes and its Potential Use in Soil Remediation <p>Soil bacteria are very vital and they are frequently used in production of crop. Chemical dialogues between bacteria and plant roots result in the proliferation and biofilm formation of plant growth promoting and contaminant degrading bacteria. Plant-bacterial interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health and soil fertility. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which is also known as plant health promoting rhizobacteria (PHPR) or nodule promoting rhizobacteria (NPR). It can benefit the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth or indirectly by producing hydrolytic enzymes and by priming plant defence. This review elaborates the effect of plant and bacterial products on the remediation of contaminated soil.</p> Kaneez Fatima Copyright (c) 2019 BioScientific Review (BSR) 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 1 4 39 45 10.32350/BSR.0104.05