BioScientific Review <p>BioScientific Review is an open-access peer-reviewed journal published on a quarterly basis. It provides a modern and multidisciplinary platform for free and fast publications broadly covering all aspects of life sciences.</p> School of Science, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US BioScientific Review 2663-4198 A Comprehensive In Silico Analysis of Deleterious SNPs of Paraplegin Protein Associated with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia through Mitochondrial Dysfunction <p class="Default" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;">Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a heterogenous neurological disorder primarily associated with progressive spasticity. Paraplegin is a mitochondrial protein and mutations in this protein can lead to HSP. In this study, in silico analysis was carried out to identify the pathogenic variants of SPG7 (paraplegin protein). To find novel pathogenic mutations, missense and splicing variants were collected from gnomAD database and passed through a detailed and stringent analysis with the help of a variety of bioinformatic tools. The list of mutations was examined and compared in ClinVar. Altogether, 14 missense mutations and 18 splicing mutations were obtained and these mutations were predicted to have the potential of disrupting the normal structural and functional properties of paraplegin protein.</p> Ammara Akhtar Sobia Nazir Choudhry Rana Muhammad Mateen Mureed Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 BioScientific Review 2020-06-09 2020-06-09 2 2 1 14 10.32350/BSR.0202.01 COVID-19 in Pakistan: Current Practices and Associated Risks <p>Seven coronaviruses were identified previously and these were known to infect human beings. The eighth human coronavirus (nCoV-2019) surfaced in Wuhan, China at the end of the year 2019, exhibiting symptoms of pneumonia and other respiratory problems. As of September 7, 2020, 27 million people have been infected with COVID-19 and more than 900,000 have lost their lives. In Pakistan, the tally of COVID-19 infected cases stands at 298,509 and 6,342 people have died. Government of Pakistan has devised “The National Action Plan for the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Pakistan” to efficiently tackle the pandemic. Many hurdles stand in the way of Pakistan fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic, effectively. Poverty and a low literacy rate are major obstacles in containing the COVID-19 transmission in Pakistan. Pakistan’s healthcare infrastructure is not fully equipped to deal with the pandemic. It is constrained by a very limited healthcare budget, small number of healthcare personnel and limited equipment. The number of tests conducted is very low which cannot give a proper insight into the actual incidence of COVID-19. Thus, it can be concluded that Pakistan, within the given facilities and predictions, is incapable of flattening the curve but the catastrophe can be avoided by taking proper measures in time.</p> Aleena Haqqi Copyright (c) 2020 BioScientific Review 2020-06-09 2020-06-09 2 2 15 22 10.32350/bsr/2020/22/507 Analysis and Estimation of Lycopene Extracted from Tomatoes <p>Lycopene is a carotenoid without provitamin-A activity which functions as an important antioxidant. It is a carotenoid present in human blood and other tissues. The intake of dietary lycopene reduces the risk of many diseases such as eye diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Tomatoes are a major source of lycopene. This study aims at finding a suitable method of extraction and estimation of lycopene from tomatoes. Pectinase, pectinase and ultrasound waves, solid state extraction and spectrometric measurements were used for the said purpose. It was deduced that by using these methods a good quantity of active lycopene can be extracted from red and raw (green) tomatoes which can be used further for therapeutic purposes. These are fast methods to extract lycopene in which pectinase is also extracted simultaneously, thus reducing the cost of buying commercial pectinase. These methods can be used on a small and/or large scale for the preparation of therapeutic medicine as well as for waste management, since vegetable waste can also be used for lycopene extraction. Further alterations can also be made to increase the efficiency of lycopene extraction.</p> Mehreen Fatima Kainat Saeed Copyright (c) 2020 BioScientific Review 2020-06-11 2020-06-11 2 2 23 32 10.32350/bsr/2020/22/717 Rapid Biodiversity Evaluation of the Arboreal Termites in Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria <p>A rapid biodiversity evaluation of arboreal termite was carried out on the campus of Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. Three different trees which include <em>Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica </em>and <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> were selected from three different sites (campus new site, premises of administrative offices and commercial area) on the campus and examined for termite activity, either arboreal nests or mud tubes which indicated infestation by the termites. Using a soft brush termite samples were collected into a labeled sampling bottle containing 10% formalin solution by cutting open the mud tubes and the nests with a forceps on the trees. A total of one hundred and twelve (112) individuals termites were samples were collected during the study belonging to five species: <em>Coptotermes sp</em>., <em>Microtermes sp., Odontotermes sp., Amitermes sp. and Nutitermes sp. </em>The<em> Coptotermes sp</em>. are the most abundant species both on the trees and the sites. <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> has the greatest diversity of the termite fauna as compared to other trees while campus new site (site A) also has greatest diversity. <em>Coptotermes sp</em> are insects of agricultural economic importance and feed on dead wood; therefore, they are insect pests of these trees and other building structures on the campus.<br><br></p> Jibril Abdullahi Jamila Bafa Saleh Copyright (c) 2020 BioScientific Review 2020-06-12 2020-06-12 2 2 33 40 10.32350/bsr/2020/22/483