BioScientific Review <p style="text-align: justify;">BioScientific Review (BSR) is an open-access peer-reviewed journal published on a quarterly basis. It provides a modern and multidisciplinary platform for free and fast publications broadly covering all aspects of life sciences. Research in the field of life sciences has grown at a bewildering pace during the last decade and BSR intends to publish momentous advances in all specialized areas of life sciences and bring them to light.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>BSR</em>&nbsp;follows an open-access publishing policy and full text of all published articles is available free, immediately upon publication of an issue. The journal’s contents are published and distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</a>&nbsp;(<a href="">CC-BY 4.0</a>) license. Thus, the work submitted to the journal implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors (neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere). On acceptance of a manuscript for publication, a corresponding author on the behalf of all co-authors of the manuscript will sign and submit a completed&nbsp;the&nbsp;Copyright and Author Consent Form.</p> (Dr. M. Sohail Afzal) (Syeda Saira Iqbal) Fri, 05 Jan 2024 04:11:12 +0000 OJS 60 Epidemiology and Molecular Confirmation of E. coli Isolated from Diseased Fish in Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan <p><strong>Background </strong>Fish is an important source of protein and vitamins, such as vitamin D and B2 (riboflavin) for human beings. However, they are plagued with a variety of disease-causing pathogens, resulting in significant economic losses. Among these pathogens, <em>Escherichia (E.) coli</em> are prominent, worldwide. This study aimed to conduct epidemiological surveillance and identification of <em>E. coli</em> strains isolated from diseased fish in District Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong> A total of fifty (50) diseased fish samples were collected from various fish farms in the district. The isolation process involved enriching the samples in nutrient broth and incubating them at 37°C for 24 hours. After enrichment, the samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar and incubated again at 37°C for 24 hours. Following incubation, Gram staining was performed to identify <em>E. coli</em> and confirm its presence. These isolates were subjected to PCR using the <em>usp</em>A gene for confirmation.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>Among fish diseases, Hemorrhagic septicemia was reported to have the highest prevalence (22%), while 12% of fish samples were infected with abdominal dropsy and fin rot. In total, six (06) <em>E. coli</em> isolates were obtained from five different diseased fish samples and confirmed by PCR-based detection of <em>usp</em>A gene.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>The current study found a link between disease-affected fish and naturally occurring <em>E. coli,</em> with molecular confirmation using the <em>usp</em>A gene. Effective management of soil, stock, water, nutrition, and environment is crucial to control losses caused by <em>E. coli</em> as opportunistic fish pathogens and spoilage agents.</p> Ahmad Hassan, Shahzad Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmad Hassan Fri, 05 Jan 2024 04:05:56 +0000 Mechanisms of Action of Toxins Released by Clostridium perfringens <p><em>Clostridium perfringens</em>, a rod-shaped anaerobe, is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes foodborne diseases. Its generation time is less than ten minutes and it can divide at 45°C. This aerotolerant bacterium has some toxigenic types (A, B, C, D, and E) that can cause diseases in human beings. Two of its newly discovered toxin types are F and G. Histotoxic, neurological, and intestinal illnesses in both people and animals are instigated by <em>C. perfringens</em> due to its wide range of protein toxins. Alpha or&nbsp;CPA, beta or&nbsp;CPB, epsilon or&nbsp;ETX,&nbsp;iota or ITX, and&nbsp;enterotoxin or CPE&nbsp;are the primary toxins that contribute toward diseases. CPA is the primary pathogenicity factor in gas poisoning in human beings, despite its limited and debatable involvement in animal illnesses. Necrotizing intestinal inflammation&nbsp;and enterotoxaemia in infants of various vertebrate species, particularly humans, are caused by CPB. Some other types cause illnesses in livestock. Necrotic and&nbsp;apoptotic&nbsp;traits are present in the molecular pathways of cell damage linked to <em>C. perfringens </em>toxins.</p> Ali Raza, Sumaira Goshi, Ali Khan, Saher Mahmood, Sumaira Goshi, Rmisha Khalid, Minahil Ijaz, Muqaddas Shaheen, Aqsa Noor, Shaher Bano, Sabahat Asghar, Tania Afzal, Zahra Akbar Copyright (c) 2024 Ali Raza, Sumaira Goshi Tue, 23 Jan 2024 03:27:15 +0000