Journal of Art, Architecture and Built Environment (JAABE) <p>Journal of ART, ARCHITECTURE AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT (JAABE) aims to present the advanced and innovative research on all major and minor issues of art, architecture, urban design, and planning.</p> en-US Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Role of Geography in Formation of Character of Civilizations Case Studies <p>When human race began its activities on Earth, it faced severe challenges of survival. The pursuit of basic necessities like food and shelter advanced them from hunting, to cultivation and food processing. The initiation of agriculture brought qualitative changes in the average human life, following the establishment of permanent settlements, cultures and civilizations. At the beginning of the age of tilling, settlers preferred locations which offered unrestrained water, fertile land and comfortable climate. Every location had its own geographical characteristics, which played a fundamental role in formation of the character and architecture of civilizations. The major early contemporary civilizations include the Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Indus Valley. The natural barren boundaries across the River Nile in Egypt enabled Pharaohs to form a strict slave system. The area accommodating two ancient rivers; Tigris and Euphrates, resulted in a settlement now known as the Mesopotamian civilization. The five rivers of Punjab and Ganges River provided people of the Indus Valley with a large piece of very fertile land. They cultivated land from Himalayan peaks in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south, expanding their civilization and architecture vastly. This paper studies these three civilizations, with reference to their geography, highlighting its effects on the development pattern and architecture. The research will give the apparent picture of how the geography effects the overall growth of civilizations, and also the similarities and dissimilarities from one location to the other.</p> Dr. Muhammad Yusuf Awan, Faiqa Khilat, Farah Jamil Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Art, Architecture and Built Environment (JAABE) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Architectural Education as Interface between Culture and Built Environment <p>The main focus of this paper is the discussion about non-coherent appearance of built environment in Pakistan that does not reflect the culture of society, but external influences more than natives. Being a part of a larger territory in yester centuries, the country is influenced heavily by external factors and deliberated efforts for “modernization” since after a decade of independence in 1947. Many parts of the subcontinent including India and Pakistan are influenced by Modernist trends in architecture that are evident in the built environment. The probability of inclusion of many diversified attributes of culture over a considerable period of time has been increased. It is therefore important to discuss the most relevant possibilities through which these influences were adopted and then were translated in the built environment. These influences are assumed to be translated through the taught content in the architectural education in the country.</p> <p>The paper also discusses the relationship of three entities; Culture, Built Environment and Architectural Education. It takes into account some examples of residences from Pakistan to analyze the interfacing capacity of culture and built environment. It adopts the methodology of qualitative study through literature and evidences from some cities of Pakistan to seek the validity of argument. It also relates the role of curriculum driven architectural education in the process of built environment. The findings reveal that the existing form of culture has grasped external influences in a subtle manner adopting a new form which appears as non-coherent to the generally perceived one. The role of architectural education in this regard holds a pivotal position in relation to the built environment. The findings established also connote architectural education as the interfacing factor of culture and built environment.</p> Dr. Yasira Naeem Pasha, Shahla Adnan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Art, Architecture and Built Environment (JAABE) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Lack of Awareness in Teachers about Learning Disabilities and Its Effect on the ESL Classroom Environment <p>This paper is based on the study to develop an insight to highlight the problems that arise in an ESL classroom due to the lack of awareness in teachers about Learning Disabilities. It focuses on the importance of professional training for ESL teachers’ before they start teaching. The population of the research report includes primary school students, members of the administration staff, ESL teachers of four primary level schools of Lahore and a number of diagnosed students suffering from one or more learning disability. The tools for collecting data for this research report included four questionnaire surveys to cater the target population. The conclusion of this research study was that the teachers should have sufficient knowledge about learning disabilities. They should be given a professional training, including awareness about learning disabilities, before they start teaching. The teachers should be able to identify learning disable students so they can enjoy a motivating learning experience. Some features that should be included in the teachers’ training are suggested.</p> Asma Atif Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Art, Architecture and Built Environment (JAABE) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 A Comparative Analysis of Reconstruction Strategies Employed in Major Earthquakes of Indo-Pak Region <p>Housing is one of the most important needs of mankind to survive. A secure and properly planned house, gives comfort to people using it, keeping them secure from severe environment, un-wanted people and animals. Apart from the human casualties, the other striking and usually most visible effect of natural disaster is majorly the destruction of houses. The loss of houses has a devastating effect on privacy, livelihoods and the dignity of individuals. An effective program for the reconstruction of houses for those affected is critical to ensure restoration of the society’s economy, cultural identity and dignity. For many humanitarian organizations, employing professional construction companies is the most common and quickest way of rebuilding houses in the aftermath of a disaster. However every strategy has its own risks and limitations, but there is a growing awareness being shared among countries to mitigate these situations. This study carefully examines the reconstruction strategies employed in earthquake affected buildings of Kashmir, Pakistan and Gujrat, India. The analysis concludes proper fulfillment of the byelaws for seismic resistant construction and enforcing law of training for laborers and local people in redevelopment of earthquake hit area.</p> Sarmad Salahuddin, Beenish Mujahid, Farah Jamil, Nasir Javed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Art, Architecture and Built Environment (JAABE) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100