Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) is a peer-reviewed, bi-annual HEC recognized journal. JITC presents a trailblazing platform to Islamic scholars and social scientists for the publication of their research articles.</p> Department of Islamic Thought and Civilization, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 2075-0943 <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.&nbsp;</a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Civilizing Role of the “Religious Idea” in Malek Bennabi’s Thought <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examines the perspective of Malek Bennabi regarding the role of religion (religious idea) in building civilization. Bennabi’s writings are analyzed to comprehend his understanding of religion and its multiple dimensions. Specifically, the paper focuses on three dimensions of religion, namely religion as a part of universal laws, as a historical force, and as a governing principle of thought. Bennabi’s view about the civilizing function of religion is also highlighted, including its objectives as outlined in the Quran, its historical significance, and its social dimensions. The study concludes that his perception of religion encompasses various dimensions, including existential, metaphysical, teleological, and practical dimensions. Furthermore, religion serves a crucial role as a compound of civilizational values, providing a medium for individual and group formation, organizing human thought towards spiritual goals, embodying the relationship between God and man, and establishing a moral law that gives meaning to human life and actions. Bennabi’s work on religion and civilization is of utmost significance in contemporary discussions about the role of religion in the society. Hence, this study contributes to the ongoing discourse by providing an in-depth analysis of his perspective, which emphasizes the positive and constructive impact of religion on human society. By recognizing the civilizational function of religion, Bennabi’s work promotes a more nuanced and inclusive understanding of religion in the contemporary society.</p> Badrane Benlahcene Copyright (c) 2023 Badrane Benlahcene 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.01 Representing the Belief of Muslims: Role and Actions of Qatar to Encounter Islamophobia during 2022 World Cup <p style="text-align: justify;">Following the terrorist attacks of 9/11, Islam was presumed and identified as a religion of violence and terror. However, in the last decade, there have been counter efforts from different Muslim countries against this opinion. One of them is Qatar, an Arab-Muslim country that organized and hosted the 2022 World Cup. The current research describes Qatar's progress as the host for the 2022 World Cup, with the data collected using qualitative methods, sourced from interviews and observations, investigating Qatar's strategy for playing out, to deal with Muslims, and fighting Islamophobia. Interviews and print media investigations helped to understand the context of Islamophobia. Qatar's role captures how the anti-Islamophobia show is built by painting a positive image of Muslims and Islam and then portraying what Islam really is. An empirical study was also conducted to analyze media discourse in order to describe the global impact of anti-Islamophobia in Qatar's roles and actions. According to a psycho-sociological perspective through role theory, this research determines that Qatar represents the Muslim community to promote peaceful Islam. The results show that the noble human values in the Al-Qur'an-Hadith which have been misunderstood so far have led to the marginalization of Muslims. Therefore, Qatar has a mission to spread the values of truth against the stereotypes of the world community towards Muslims which are detrimental to their existence. Moreover, this research provides evidence of psycho-sociological phenomena in a broad context.</p> D.I. Ansusa Putra Copyright (c) 2023 D.I. Ansusa Putra 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.02 Dark Side of the Web in the Context of Online Radicalization <p style="text-align: justify;">Radicalization refers to the mental process that legitimizes violence or violent actions under the influence of social, cognitive and economic factors.&nbsp; With the advent of the Internet, radical groups have also changed their methods of action by adapting to the new conjuncture. The Internet is no longer just a part of the spectrum of extremist activities, however, it also become the primary arena and operational environment where political ideologies are shaped, attacks are planned and extraordinary social movements begin to emerge.&nbsp; Group members come together on online platforms to have discussions about faith and use these platforms to expand the spectrum of activism at both individual and organizational levels in order to spread their political ideologies, to recruit staff, and to plan attacks. In the current study, conceptual framework, individual and group dynamic causes of radicalization, metaphors explaining radicalization, religiously motivated radicalization, online radicalization and case examples are emphasized.</p> Halide Erdoğan Copyright (c) 2023 Halide Erdoğan 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.03 Undermining the Familiar and Embodiment Content in Arabic Calligraphy <p style="text-align: justify;">Contrary to deconstruction and its destructive pursuit, the concept of undermining the familiar seeks to refute the constants and its known limitations. It is done through the process of receiving and what is imposed by the formation of the word or text or the structural and design structure in general, along with the Arabic calligraphy in particular. This is based on the recipient's understanding and interpretation of the dual phenomenon and the content's manifestation. More accurately, the disclosure of its reality through its expressive phenomenology; for that sake, the research was devoted to studying “undermining the familiar and embodiment content in Arabic calligraphy” including four chapters. The first chapter comprised the methodological introduction, the second chapter dealt with the concept of undermining the familiar and its representations in Arabic calligraphy, and to embodiment the content along with its use in Arabic calligraphy. While, the third chapter represented the research procedures and the community reached (32) compositions, in which the analysis concluded several results. The fourth chapter clarified the most important concept. The sample calligraphers were able to focus on the design relationships of the theoretical framework. The current study acquainted with undermining the familiar and embodiment of the content for those concerned and interested in the art of Arabic calligraphy, it also focused to benefit from the energies of letters and their constructive movements in building, modernizing, and renewing the arts of Arabic calligraphy. Moreover, the research also suggested studying the design treatments in order to embody the content in the formations of Arabic calligraphy.</p> Mohammed Radhee Ghadheb Oday Abdulhameed Majeed Furat Jamal Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Mohammed Radhee Ghadheb, Oday Abdulhameed Majeed 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.04 Reframing Occidentalism: Purpose, Construction of Scientific Paradigms, and Reconstruction of Post-Orientalism Knowledge <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study aimed to reaffirm the framing of Occidentalism as an academic discipline that has a more constructive value, rather than placing it solely as a form of euphoric criticism and resistance to Orientalism and the West.&nbsp; The decline of Occidentalism as an academic discipline has been caused by framing which narrows its intellectual activities and allows it to function only as a critique of Orientalism. Previous studies concluded that Occidentalism is only the anti-thesis of Orientalism, although how Occidentalism – as a scientific discipline – composes its scientific paradigm, is barely discussed. What does Occidentalism actually criticize and how does it construct its epistemology as an important scientific discipline? This question is important to elaborate on the existence of Occidentalism. The current research conducted an in-depth study of the opinions and arguments of scientists, such as Edward W. Said, Hassan Hanafi, Sayyid Qutb, and Seyyed Hossein Nasr. By investigating the domain of their views, especially on Orientalism and the West, critical and dialectical themes were also classified to find the epistemological construction of Occidentalism. The findings showed that Occidentalism has ontological, epistemological, and axiological constructs which dialectically reveal the weaknesses of Orientalism. However, a more exploratory and important finding is that the epistemological construction of Occidentalism is divided into four major dialectical streams. Firstly, the critique of civilizational values, secondly, revealing the ontological, epistemological, and axiological structures, thirdly, offering a balanced discipline of study, and fourthly the discovery of a new path for Western civilization.</p> Badarussyamsi Badarussyamsi Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Anggung 2023-05-25 2023-05-25 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.05 Peculiarities of Kazakhstan and Malaysia in View of the Relationship between State and Religion <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study analyzed the specifics of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Federation of Malaysia keeping in view the relationship between religion and state. For Kazakhstan, which has a multi-confessional and multi-ethnic specificity, it is extremely important to study and examine the experience of other peer countries. In this context, Malaysia, as a multi-confessional and multi-ethnic state, has its own experience in maintaining the relationship between state and religion. Kazakhstan, which has enshrined itself in its constitution as a secular state, has always focused on improving the state's policy on religion, regulating the activities of religious associations in view of democratic requirements and defining the complex aspects of the relationship between state and religion. For Kazakhstan, it is of particular importance to differentiate its model of a secular country dominated by the representatives of Islam. For this purpose, the country chosen for comparison was Malaysia, which has excellent development indicators.&nbsp; The current study determined the specific features of the two countries in the in terms of ethnic and confessional composition, the structure of public administration, religious education, activities of religious associations, interreligious dialogue and tolerance, the fight against religious extremism, and terrorism via historical and comparative analysis.</p> Aldiyarova Zhanat Nurgul Tutinova Zatov Kairat Seifullina Galiya Bagasharov Kudayberdi Mussabekov Maxat Copyright (c) 2023 Nurgul Tutinova 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.06 ISIS’ Miscontextualization of Ḥadīth through the Strategic Linguistic Propaganda: A Socio-political Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">ISIS has used language propaganda to further its sociopolitical objectives and defend its harsh behavior through the miscontextualization of&nbsp;ḥadīth. This study uses linguistic stylistics to demonstrate the language used in ISIS's magazine “<em>Dabīq,”&nbsp;</em>which made piecemeal usage of ḥadīth (Prophet Muhammad's sayings) to justify its actions. To do so, the study first thematizes the&nbsp;ḥadīth<em>s&nbsp;</em>that ISIS reported. It then points out the silences (by “silences,” we mean important ḥadīths that are missing from ISIS’s discourse) involved in ISIS's discourse concerning these themes, in which the critical&nbsp;ḥadīth<em>s</em>&nbsp;are absent from ISIS's discourse as they emphasize lessons and teachings other than those that ISIS propagates. The results revealed that ISIS used two ḥadīth<em>s</em> to celebrate its role in what they consider the revival of the <em>Khilāfah</em>, four ḥadīth<em>s</em> to portray itself as the Jihādist organization that most imitates <em>Imamah, </em>two ḥadīth<em>s </em>to reinforce violent <em>Jihād </em>as the spearhead of its <em>Minhāj </em>(way or path)<em>,</em> and one ḥadīth to call for&nbsp;<em>Hijrah&nbsp;</em>in its territories. The study revealed ISIS's preference for particular themes in ḥadīth&nbsp;over others; thus, the study gives voice to those&nbsp;ḥadīth<em>s&nbsp;</em>that are absent from ISIS's discourse, where the&nbsp;ḥadīth<em>s&nbsp;</em>directly related to the thematic areas involved in ISIS's speech are unavailable.</p> Muhammad Husni Abu Melhim Yousef Mohammed Al-Shurman Fatima A. Zainelabdin Yasser Ahmed Rabab’a Rihab A. BaniSaeed Mahmoud Ali Rababah Copyright (c) 2023 Mahmoud Rababah 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.07 Obedience to Uli’l-Amr and Tax Compliance: Islamic Scholarly Perceptions <p>For Muslims, all aspects of human life including politics and leadership are governed by the Holy <em>Qur’ān</em>. One of the well-known verses is QS. An-Nisa [4]: 59 which instructs the Muslims to obey <em>uli’l-amr</em>. The literature, however, shows that the scope of obedience is not absolute. Resultantly, the current research aims to understand the tax compliance in the context of obedience to authority. It provides a contemporary viewpoint from the Islamic boarding school (<em>pesantren</em>) communities in Depok, Indonesia about enrichment. Both quantitative research and field observations have been used to accomplish the research goals. Focusing on the <em>pesantren</em> communities’ support for the operation of&nbsp;public services, it highlights the connections between obedience to authority and tax compliance. They confirm several assertions frequently linked to tax compliance based on&nbsp;the responsibility on order to obey&nbsp;the ruler, the legitimacy of tax collection, and the intention to engage in tax (non) compliance. The findings enhance the <em>pesantren</em> environment’s support for taxation as a commitment to implement QS. An-Nisa [4]: 59. If the government’s ability to collect taxes is constrained, it would remind them to handle this resource efficiently.&nbsp;This study emphasises the importance of taxation for the viability of the state with genuine support for taxation, transcending any political right. Since <em>uli’l-amr</em> is inherent in religious teachings, the government’s main goal remains to encourage taxpayer compliance through various means of assistance. In this regard, recommendations for promoting tax compliance through some&nbsp;mechanisms are also presented.</p> Prianto Budi Saptono Ismail Khozen Ferry Jie Copyright (c) 2023 Prianto Budi Saptono, Ismail Khozen, Ferry Jie 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.08 Abdullah Saeed's Construction of the Hierarchy of Values in the Qur’ān: A Philosophical Hermeneutic Perspective <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to elaborate Abdullah Saeed's hierarchy of values construction. The hierarchy of values is one of the most significant elements in Abdullah Saeed's contextual approach. This concept defines the basic requirements for contextual interpretation of the Qur’ān in a global-unrestricted and limited restricted context. In this way, interpreters can identify the level of urgency, complexity, and ambiguity of values in the verses of the Qur’ān. This study deploys a qualitative research method, with Abdullah Saeed's works as the main reference point, especially the one entitled as <em>Interpreting the Qur’ān: Towards a Contemporary Approach</em> and <em>Reading the Qur’ān in the Twenty-First Century: A Contextualist Approach</em>. Abdullah Saeed's hierarchy of values construction is then analyzed using philosophical hermeneutics by Hans-Georg Gadamer. The findings of this study, namely Abdullah Saeed's construction of a hierarchy of values cannot be separated from the Australian social and cultural context, which encouraged Saeed to understand Islam’s flexibly. Saeed formulates a value hierarchy into five categories, namely obligatory values, fundamental values, protective values, implementational values, and instructional values. Basically, the value hierarchy put forth is little more than a synthesis of various concepts initiated by early Muslim scholars such as Umar bin Khattab and medieval scholars such as al-Thufi, Ghazali, 'Izz al-Din bin 'Abd al-Salam, al- Shatibi, and Fazlur Rahman.</p> Barsihannor M. Ilham Andi Tri Saputra Abdul Syatar Copyright (c) 2023 M. Ilham, Andi Tri Saputra, Abdul Syatar, Haris Kulle 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.09 Neo-Islamophobia: A New Western Social Order <p class="Keywords" style="line-height: normal; margin: 0in 0in 6pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Traditionally, the term Islamophobia refers to prejudice, racism, and/or securitization which implies that this phenomenon operates at cognitive, cultural, or structural levels. The current researchers anticipate that the term now represents an Islamophobic social order in the West where hatred for Islam and everything related to it appears to be the collective behaviour of the society. This points to a new social reality that goes beyond the psychological problem, now referred to as Islamophobia. Therefore, the researchers have added the prefix "neo" to this term in order to account for Islamophobia's psychosocial nature which manifests itself in discourses and practices. The purpose of this research is to study Islamophobic discourses in the media of two Western societies in order to better understand the nature of Islamophobia in each: the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (USA). It studies leading articles (that is, 446 in toto) from <em>The Independent</em> and <em>The Washington Post</em> between November 2016 and December 2017, using DHA's analytical framework. This study concludes that traditional "Islamophobia" dominates in the UK context, where Islam is perceived as a threat to Europe's symbolic identity and "Neo-Islamophobia" in the US context, where Islam is seen as a threat to the socio-political order. It also proposes a cyclical process of neo-Islamophobia, beginning with problematizing Islam, and progressing to “otherizing,” racializing, and finally securitizing Muslims. The researchers, however, recommend similar studies in other contexts too.</span></p> Muhammad Tariq Zafar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Tariq Awan, Zafar Iqbal 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.10 Instruments of Property Ownership in Islam: The Study of Inheritance Law <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study investigated the role of Islamic inheritance law as a means to ensure the right to property ownership. The "humans and property" theme has garnered widespread interest among scholars and public. Discourse on this topic may be highlighted from economic and legal aspects. Humans, as living beings, cannot be separated from material needs, such as property. In Islam, property is considered one of the trusts granted to human beings as owners in a <em>majāzi </em>sense. Therefore, this study explored the issue of property ownership that originates from inheritance regulated by Islamic law. According to Abu Zahrah, ownership by inheritance is part of special ownership. In order to elaborate this subject, library research method was used along with the analysis of literature based on madhhab doctrines. The study concluded that inheritance is one way of ownership of property through a change of ownership based on <em>ijbāri</em> (God's provisions). Inheritance is a means of acquiring property, where ownership rights are transferred from a deceased person to his/her living relatives. The transfer of ownership is based on the <em>ijbāri </em>principle (Allah’s decree), rendering inheritance an instrument of property ownership that cannot be endeavored (<em>ikhtiyārī</em>) and determined by human beings. Furthermore, Islamic inheritance law encompasses the principles of bilateral and balanced justice which distinguishes the concept from other legal systems.</p> Hafidz Taqiyuddin Mus’idul Millah Hikmatul Luthfi Copyright (c) 2023 Hafidz Taqiyuddin 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.11 Religious Hegemony and Vernacular Mosque Architecture: Investigating Authority Differentials, Intra group Dissonance and Acculturation among Chinese Muslims <p class="Normal1" style="margin-bottom: 6pt;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">This article engages with the role of sacred architecture as an embodiment of the conflicts, within a Chinese Muslim ethnic minority group, determined by the dispute upon religious hegemony. Vernacular architecture of a minority group has significant socio-cultural implications and can serve as a tool to measure its integration in the mainstream society. Through an ethnographic study focusing upon the Hui, a Muslim minority community of Xi’an, in Communist China and their sacred architecture, it indicates that the architectural archetype of a mosque quite precisely concretizes the religious hegemony, intra group dissonance and acculturative or retentionist trends of Hui community. It demonstrates that certain architectural features, such as the presence or absence of minaret and dome or a Chinese styled roof with carved animals, in the mosque clearly mirror the loci of religious authority of its adherents. It proposes that architectural characteristics can play the role of preservers and charters of cultural identity of a minority group and can equivocally serve as symbols of retention or acculturation in the mainstream society. By applying a socio-architectural approach, it is meant to explore that how mosques architecture in today’s China reflects the intra group dissonance of the Hui community and how shifting paradigms of religiously oriented hegemony are working to eradicate the Sino-Muslim historical architectural relics.</span></p> Ayesha Qurrat ul Ain Copyright (c) 2023 Ayesha Qurrat ul Ain 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.12 Scientific Studies of the Qur’ān in the Contemporary Era: An Analysis of Concept, History, and Methodology <p style="text-align: justify;">Significant efforts are made to revive scientific thinking,to require coordination through the application of the holistic elements of al-<em>Qur’ān</em>'s scientific thinking. Therefore, methods in the scientific research of the <em>Qur’ān</em> were adapted according to the times and the development of civilizations. Hence, the current &nbsp;scientific study of the <em>Qur’ān</em> focused on the historiography to see its overall development. This study &nbsp;discussed the concept of scientific thought of the <em>Qur’ān</em> and its importance to the <em>I‘jāz</em> of the <em>Qur’ān</em>. Additionaly, the scholars’ position in emphasizing the scientific study of the <em>Qur’ān</em> was also presented in this research. Moreover, the adopted method of analysis was library research, which examined the relevant written research materials. The analysis illustrated that the <em>Qur’ān</em>ic scientific methodology included divine science based on the <em>I‘jāz al-Ilāhī</em>, social science based on the <em>I‘jāz al-Tashrī‘ī</em>,and natural science based on the <em>I‘jāz al-‘Ilmī</em> and the development history offered comparisons of thoughts, which emerged during the Islamic civilization. Such <em>Qur’ān</em>ic scientific methodology has led/conducted&nbsp; a deeper understanding of the <em>Qur’ān</em> and brought its study/interpretations to the public. Thus, this study is significant for exhibiting the importance of deepening the conceptual connection developed in the <em>Qur’ān</em>ic scientific study with its historical development. This is to enable the application of epistemological thinking through scientific thinking in fulfilling human needs and the universal universe carefully and harmoniously.</p> Selamat Amir Muhamad Alihanafiah Norasid Ahmad Bazli Ahmad Hilmi Copyright (c) 2023 AHMAD BAZLI AHMAD HILMI, SELAMAT AMIR, MUHAMAD ALIHANAFIAH NORASID 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.13 Role of Indonesian Council of Ulama in Halāl Certification and Product Guarantee <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research analysed the role of Indonesian Council of <em>Ulama</em> in halāl certification after the enactment of Law No. 33 of 2014. The Indonesian Council of <em>Ulama</em> is Indonesia’s peak clerical body with the authority to specify halāl and Harām fatwas of a product. It plays a crucial role in helping the government to assure halāl certification of the product before it is consumed. According to publicly available data, there are 85 percent of food, beverages, and cosmetic products with unidentified halāl certification circulating in Indonesia. Moreover, there are foods and beverages that put halāl label illegally without any halāl testing on the products. This issue may cause concern for Indonesian people, as majority of them are Muslims. The current study applied library research method to retrieve secondary data on&nbsp;halāl certification of food and beverages, which was in accordance with the&nbsp;Law No. 33 of 2014 on Halāl Product Guarantee. The study determined that the involvement of the Indonesian Council of <em>Ulama</em> to establish legal certainty for halāl and Harām food and beverage products after the enactment of Law No. 33 of 2014 for Guaranteed Halāl Products (JPH) was critical. Even though, the halāl certification procedure is handled by BPJPH, the Indonesian Council of <em>Ulama</em> has a role to play in halāl certification by issuing a halāl fatwa for a product. It also helps to accredit Halāl Inspection Agency and certifying halāl auditors.</p> Abdul Rachman Abdul Ashar Johnsan Khokhar Copyright (c) 2023 Abdul Rachman Abdul 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.14 Exploring Civilization: Analyzing Siraj Munir’s Conception of Islamic Civilization <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study provides the contextual background of the multifaceted and ever-evolving concept of civilization, tracing its origins and evolution in the field of social sciences along with its use in the Islamic context as well as its application in the pre-partition Indian subcontinent. The focus remains on the perspectives of Pakistani scholars regarding the notion of Islamic civilization with a specific emphasis on the ideas of Siraj Munir. The author classified the diverse perspectives of Pakistani scholars into three distinct categories namely materialists, fundamentalists, and idealists. Siraj Munir's views are situated within the idealist category. Through an in-depth analysis, the author provides a comprehensive examination of Munir’s ideas regarding the definition, formation, components, evolution, differences, and rise and fall of civilizations, as well as his articulation of Islamic and Pakistani civilizations. The current study offers a nuanced and critical understanding of the concept of civilization, providing valuable insights for scholars and researchers in the field.</p> Farid bin Masood Muhammad Rasheed Arshad Copyright (c) 2023 Farid bin Masood 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.15 The Philosophy of Creativity, Innovation, and Technology from an Islāmic Perspective <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study aims to shed light on the often-overlooked Islamic history and its lasting legacy, countering the dominant western discourse. It seeks to highlight the creativity, innovation, and technology that emerged from the rich classical Islamic heritage. The remarkable civilization forged by Muslim scholars and scientists across various fields of human knowledge was only made possible due to their profound belief and religious duty to promote creativity in human existence. Therefore, the current research aims to present, a philosophical study of innovation and creativity based on the Qur’ān and Sunnah supported by classical and modern Islamic literature. This study also deploys an analytical and descriptive approach to conduct an analysis of present literature on Islamic origin. Moreover, this article is a scholarly attempt to demystify the principles and values that regulate the philosophy of creativity and innovation in Islām. Additionally, it presents an Islamic view on Muslim’s existing moral issues of innovation, creativity, and technology by drawing upon the teachings and principles of Qur’ān and Sunnah. To achieve, the proposed goals of this article, many Islāmic texts that urge innovation, creativity, and pay a special concern to the talented and skilled, were consulted. Hence, the research determined that Islamic heritage has a lot to contribute to the modern conceptualization of innovative and creative human life, which motivates Muslims’ to compete with others in this regard. Consequently, there is no such thing in Islam that prevents a Muslim from excelling in technology, which brings benefits and repels harm, while following the principles and teachings of the Qur’ān and Sunnah.</p> Reda Ibrahim Ibrahim Elsayed Abdelgalil Copyright (c) 2023 Reda Abdelgalil 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.16 Religious Pluralism and Harmony among Buddhist - Muslim Communities Living in East Lampung, Indonesia <p style="text-align: justify;">Village communities are usually homogeneous, so the presence of other groups often leads to rejection. In addition, the nature of the majority-minority relationship within the prevailing religious and ethnic background has the potential to cause conflict. However, the people of Sumber Sari village, East Lampung have successfully eluded such a conflict. This paper strives to show the interaction between religious communities that are positively intertwined. It uses a case study approach with a purposive sample. The unit of analysis remains the community of Sumber Sari village, East Lampung, consisting of Buddhists, Muslims, religious leaders, and community leaders. The archives of the Office of the Ministry of Religion of East Lampung Regency are also a source of secondary data in this study. Objectively, harmony in Buddhist and Muslim societies occurs in three forms. Firstly, internal harmony exists in the Buddhist society between assemblies, manifested in joint worship. Secondly, the harmony between the Buddhists and the Muslims is manifested in <em>tahlilan/syukuran</em>, <em>kenduren </em><em>suroan</em>, and other activities. Thirdly, the relationship with the government can be maintained properly because of the belief that development can work if there is harmony in the community. This study also has certain limitations since it involves only two of the six official religions in Indonesia, namely Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. However, a picture of harmony between the two religions is depicted in this study.</p> Rahmat Saehu Ibnu Hasan Muchtar Copyright (c) 2023 Rahmat Saehu, Ibnu Hasan Muchtar 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.17 Islamic Intellectualism versus Modernity: Attempts to Formulate Coherent Counter Narrative <p style="text-align: justify;">Islamic intellectualism is an unfailing source of revealed wisdom for addressing all the issues that may keep arising till the judgment day. History has preserved works of several exceptional individuals who formulated effective answers in the light of this knowledge to the challenges of their times. In this age, modernity and its pernicious impacts on different aspects of human life pose a new challenge which has drawn undivided attention of scholars. Hence, they come up with various proposals to deal with it in an emphatic manner. It is, therefore, necessary for scholars to reevaluate the works of such influential intellectuals in order to enable themselves to address the new challenges. The current study incorporated the matchless contribution made by Jamal al-Din Afghani, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, and Dr. Fazlur Rahman to the struggle against unabated onslaught on the faith and its foundations, civilization, and cultural development by western modernity. Afghani was the first to identify the problem and deliver a forceful and logical response by uncovering the pernicious effects of modernity. Dr. Iqbal improved upon Afghani’s contribution and strove to revive the dynamic spirit of Islamic thought, while Dr Fazlur Rahman completed their mission by moulding their ideas into an all-inclusive synthetic system. The discourse set off by the trilogy of their ideas constitutes an effective response to modernity which may also prove to be a blueprint for formulating viable responses to any future challenges to the true spirit of Islam.</p> Muhammad Akhtar Muhammad Atif Aslam Rao Doğan Kaplan Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Atif Aslam Rao 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.18 Sharī‘ah Governance and Sharī‘ah Non-Compliance Risk Management: A Maqāsid Sharī‘ah Based Appraisal <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study aims to explore the <em>Sharī‘ah </em>Governance (SG) and the management of <em>Sharī‘ah </em>Non-Compliance Risk (SNCR) in Islamic Banks (IBs) of Pakistan through the lens of <em>Maqasid Sharī‘ah</em>. For this purpose, the content analysis method was employed on the <em>Sharī‘ah </em>Governance Framework (SGF) issued by the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), by concerning the related literature. Content analysis revealed that SGF explicitly defined the roles and responsibilities of various organs of SG of IBs towards <em>sharī‘ah</em> compliance. Moreover, the study also revealed that IBs were exposed to SNCR whenever they failed to comply with <em>Sharī‘ah </em>and consequently, SNCR lead to such a situation that threatened the stability and viability of IBs. The findings of this paper suggested that the viability and stability of IBs, as one of <em>Maqāsid Khassah</em> of the Islamic financial system, is being fully realized through different SG mechanisms provided in SGF, which strengthened the overall <em>sharī‘ah </em>compliance environment of IBs in Pakistan. It was &nbsp;also confirmed that different <em>Maqasid Sharī‘ah </em>, such as transparency, protection and growth of wealth, equity and justice in return distribution, and two dimensions of the well-being of society from the perspective of <em>Maqasid Sharī‘ah </em>, namely, safeguarding religiosity and safeguarding wealthwere being realized through SG mechanisms of IBs in Pakistan.</p> Rafiullah Sheikh Mohammad Ayaz Muhammad Abubakar Siddique Copyright (c) 2023 Rafiullah Sheikh, Mohammad Ayaz, Muhammad Abubakar Siddique 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.19 Possession of Zakāt and Contemporary Outlook: A Review <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Zakāt</em> is the basis of Islamic revenue collection. It aims to create a self-supporting society where everyone can fulfill their basic necessities. This study examines the most significant aspect of <em>Zakāt</em>, that is, the issue of its possession or <em>tamlīk</em>. In the Holy Quran, the obligation of <em>Zakāt</em> is described briefly but the headings of <em>Zakāt</em> are mentioned. Indeed, regarding the headings of <em>Zakāt</em>, there are divergent viewpoints on the subject “possession of <em>Zakāt</em><em>”</em>. This is a hotly debated issue among jurisprudents and contemporary scholars who are divided into four distinct groups based on their opinions: (1) Possession of <em>Zakāt</em> is required for all eight headings of <em>Zakāt</em><em>,</em> (2) According to Imam Malik, the first four headings of <em>Zakāt</em> and the last heading of <em>Zakāt</em> have the condition of possession, while the remaining three do not, (3) According to contemporary scholars, possession of <em>Zakāt</em> is necessary for the first four headings of <em>Zakāt</em>. However, <em>Zakāt</em> would be spent on welfare projects based on the last four headings of <em>Zakāt</em><em>,</em> and (4) Imam Quffal said that the possession of <em>Zakāt</em> is not a condition for all headings of <em>Zakāt</em>. Article concludes that Jamhūr (majority of) Ulama's viewpoint is more acceptable and accurate.</p> Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor Hafiz Atif Iqbal Muhammad Akram Hureri Copyright (c) 2023 Dr Muhammad Akram Hureri, Dr Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, Dr. Hafiz Atif Iqbal 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.20 Historical Evolution and Prevention of Westophobia in Muslim Societies <p style="text-align: justify;">Confrontational religious, economic, and political issues have created an intolerant environment globally. The clashes between the worlds have not only disturbed and manipulated both civilizations but also illustrated the faults on the global world.&nbsp;&nbsp; Therefore, the current study aims to analyze the historical evolution of <em>Westophobia</em> in Muslim societies, which has evolved with the civilizations. The opportunities, which can improved the situation, are also assessed in this intellectual debate. <em>Westophobia</em> is a term used in civilizational discourses to refer to the fear that Muslim societies have of the Western world. Many misconceptions and media propaganda’s are strengthening the foundation of this negative attitude towards the West day by day. Different ideologies related to religious extremism and the clash of civilizations have flourished because of the biased viewpoint of people towards the Western ideology. Therefore, it is essentially important to stop this poisonous thinking in order to promote sustainable peace and religious tolerance globally. Hence, Muslims around the world face many challenges towards this fruitful activity. &nbsp;Generally, Islamophobia, orientalism, and imperialism have gripped the religious and political circles of the West by creating a rigid expression of the Muslim world. Therefore, the current study deployed a qualitative research methodology to present to evaluate factors influencing <em>Westphobia</em>.</p> Muhammad Riaz Mahmood Mohammad Dilshad Mohabbat Hafiz Muhammad Hammad Copyright (c) 2023 Hammad 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.21 Districts of Bangladesh Named After Sufis Manifesting the Great Impact of Sufism on Bengal Civilization: A Qualitative Study <p style="text-align: justify;">Sufism, a mystical Islamic practice, has profoundly impacted Bengal's culture and civilisation, including Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. The current study aims to discuss how Sufism has helped to reduce religious hatred and extremism among Bengalis. It has also established a system of equality, love, and fraternity among people in the Bengali culture. The history and influence of Sufism in Bangladesh is over a thousand years old and significantly impacts about hundred sixty-nine million people in Bangladesh. One of the reasons is the effect of the calling of <em>Dawah'</em>s activities. After Sufism crossed the threshold of Bangladesh, it fascinated the Bengalis and left a meaningful impact on them, which also strengthened their Islamic ideology. Sufism immensely helped the promotion of societal peace in Bengal. The Bengali Sufi saints preached love and compassion, and their ideas also promoted different aspects of religion. They urged people to appreciate variety and value one another's uniqueness. This selfless act inspired many humans to leave their faith to convert to Islam. There is a unique contribution of Sufism to the development of social life and the civilisation of Bangladesh. Remarkably, the settlements of eleven out of sixty-four districts with the names of the famous Sufis show the influence of Sufism. Moreover, since the Sufis were charismatic leaders, their piety, helpfulness, and compassion continue to help Sufism remain a pillar of mystical Islam in Bangladesh.</p> Vahit Göktaş Saeyd Rashed Hasan Chowdury Copyright (c) 2023 Prof. Dr. Vahit Göktaş, Saeyd Rashed Hasan Chowdury 2023-06-12 2023-06-12 13 1 10.32350/jitc.131.22