Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) is a peer-reviewed, bi-annual HEC recognized journal. JITC presents a trailblazing platform to Islamic scholars and social scientists for the publication of their research articles.</p> Department of Islamic Thought and Civilization, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 2075-0943 <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.&nbsp;</a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Image of Women in Islam: Maqāsid Approach for Correct Interpretation <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study attempted to outline the necessity of using the purposes method (<em>al-manhaj al-maqāṣidi</em>) to understand the correct meaning of Islamic religious texts, particularly those related to the image of women, by analysing a set of Prophetic Hadiths in the canonical works of al-Bukhari and Muslim. When the purposes method is not utilized, these texts are typically understood as hostile towards women, leading many to question their validity. The current study employed the analytical and critical methods derived from holistically viewing the religious texts. The study argued that the purposes method should be used by gathering all the texts relevant to a particular topic, deriving specific purposes from general ones, linking branch issues to their origins, and assessing other contextual and situational evidences to create a correct understanding of religious texts that avoids explanations and violates the general principles of <em>Shariah</em>. Moreover, the study also argued that the purposes methodology stands as a pivotal element in grasping the essence of an Islamic text, rooted in the overarching principles of the law, and is utilized to interpret and guide fragmented texts. It also serves as a subset of the principle of elucidating ambiguous issues and reverting the secondary matters to their original bases. Once validated, the objectives of the law serve as a benchmark for adjudicating any unresolved matter not explicitly addressed in the examination.</p> Maher Haswa Man Baker Moath Alnaief Copyright (c) 2024 Maher Haswa, Man Baker, Moath Alnaief 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 1 16 10.32350/jitc.141.01 British Colonial Education in the Indian Subcontinent (1757-1858): Attitude of Muslims <p style="text-align: justify;">This article investigates the British colonial education imparted in the Indian Subcontinent during the priod 1757-1858, keeping in view the Muslim perspective. The objective is to comprehend the complex and diverse ways in which Muslims responded to British education throughout the colonial era, which were influenced by revolutionary and reactionary movements ignited by British domination. Muslims developed a complicated relationship with colonial education as a result of tensions heightened by the repression of indigenous concerns and the disregard for the acquisition of Islamic values. This study aims to comprehend the purpose of British education in the Indian subcontinent, analyses competing Muslim ideologies surrounding colonial education, uncovers factors influencing Muslim attitudes toward education during the British rule, and also analyses the differences in how different groups of Muslims responded to British education throughout British colonialism. For this purpose, this study uses a qualitative research methodology to investigate historical sources and determine the factors contributing to the hostile and defensive views of Indian Muslims regarding colonial education. The findings demonstrate the complex effects of British colonial policies, underlining the conflicts brought about by the disregard for Islamic knowledge and the fallout from the Sepoy Revolution. The study depicts varying responses to western education and competing ideologies among Muslims in India and underscores the significance of placing Muslim views in the larger sociopolitical context of colonial India. It also emphasises how critical it is to comprehend Muslim viewpoints on colonial education to dispel myths and promote a nuanced awareness of the historical legacies that continue to influence educational practices in post-colonial cultures.</p> Abdul Momen Mansoureh Ebrahimi Kamaruzaman Yusoff Copyright (c) 2024 Abdul Momen, Mansoureh Ebrahimi, Kamaruzaman Yusoff 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 17 39 10.32350/jitc.141.02 Islamic Paradigm of International Relations in Times of Peace and Conflict: A Conceptual Framework <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to demonstrate that Islam, as a religion, has an integrated paradigm to deal with international relations. The paradigm includes both peaceful and defensive frameworks applicable during times of peace and conflict, respectively. These two frameworks are based on several foundations and concepts that complement each other to establish the paradigm. The peaceful framework is based on three criteria, namely acquaintance, cooperation, and counseling. While, the defensive framework is based on the reprehension of warfare, the necessity of repelling, and the prioritization of benevolence. The current study seeks to elucidate each of these six concepts and their interconnectedness in shaping the Islamic paradigm of international relations. It relied on inductive and analytical methods to achieve these goals and concluded that Islam’s approach to repelling aggression is primarily rooted in the disapproval of warfare, and that using force is considered a last resort when peace cannot be achieved through other means. &nbsp;Then, when the Muslims are dominant over their opponents, emphasis shifts towards benevolence and tolerance, over seeking justice or revenge.</p> Nayef Al-Shamari Copyright (c) 2024 Nayef Al-Shamari 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 40 54 10.32350/jitc.141.03 Muslim Ummah and its Disintegration in the Past: A Critical Analysis of the Tablighi Jamaat Perspective <p style="text-align: justify;">One of the largest Islamic evangelical movements in the contemporary world, that is, the <em>Tablighi</em> Jamaat (TJ) has recently received the attention of many scholars both in Muslim and non-Muslim countries. So far, majority of the scholars have focused on its origin and rapid spread in countries around the world. Therefore, the current study aimed to answer an important question that scholars may have either overlooked or paid scant attention to until this day. The ideology of TJ has raised a certain question as to what were the various causes that led to the downfall of the Muslim <em>Ummah</em> (world community of Muslims) in the past? To investigate this issue, the researchers encountered many primary and secondary sources to reach a comprehensive understanding of TJ’s doctrine of ‘Islamic decline’. Resultantly, the study found that TJ’s belief regarding the decline of the Muslim <em>Ummah</em> is similar to that of the other religious groups in Pakistan, that is, deviating from the path of the Prophet Muhammad. According to <em>Tablighi</em> activists, the main purpose of the Prophet Muhammad was <em>Dawah</em>, and by neglecting the fundamental duty of <em>Dawat</em>-i-<em>Tabligh</em> (<em>Tablighi</em> evangelization), Muslims have constantly been on the path of decline. Moreover, <em>Tablighi</em> activists mention few specific factors behind the social, economic, and political backwardness of the Muslim nation. These factors include religiosity of ordinary Muslims, focusing on academia by Muslim scholars in the past, the concentration of Muslim’s ruling class on just collecting taxes and revenue from the masses, and the moral decline of common Muslims.</p> Kausar Ali Huang Minxing Andrew Smith Copyright (c) 2024 Kausar Ali, Huang Minxing, Smith Andrew 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 55 73 10.32350/jitc.141.04 Imam Zarkasyi’s Contribution to Indonesia’s Modern Waqf Education System <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study aimed to explore Imam Zarkasyi’s efforts to modernize <em>pesantren </em>institutions (Islamic boarding schools) through waqf organizations. The study drew on scholarly publications including books and academic papers as well as primary sources about Imam Zarkasyi by utilizing a qualitative, descriptive, and explanatory research methodology. The findings revealed that Zarkasyi’s educational perspectives and personal experiences significantly influenced the modernization of the waqf-based educational system. Zarkasyi’s proposals to enhance the <em>pondok</em> system’s modernity were based on his thorough understanding of the country’s educational culture. In response to the Dutch colonial administration, private educational institutions were established in 1926. These institutions offered students, educators, and community members the chance to acquire essential life skills and values in a unique educational setting. To ensure the continuity of these institutions, Zarkasyi transformed them into publicly owned enterprises through waqf establishment in 1958. As a waqif, he allocated a substantial portion of his fortune to be shared collectively among his three brothers. Zarkasyi aimed to ensure the sustainability of this approach by incorporating waqf principles which include attitudes, abilities, and praiseworthy characteristics. His initiatives continue to serve as a pedagogical model for private schools in Indonesia. This success motivates others to emulate the waqf concept, thereby contributing to the restoration and development of Islamic civilization.</p> Syahruddin Sumardi Samindjaya Abdelkader Laallam Fahmi Ali Hudaefi Bechir Mahamat Issa Saidi Ouassaf Mohamed Imad Oussedik Copyright (c) 2024 Syahruddin Sumardi Samindjaya, Abdelkader Laallam, Fahmi Ali Hudaefi, Bechir Mahamat Issa, Saidi Ouassaf, Mohamed Imad Oussedik 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 74 91 10.32350/jitc.141.05 Possibilities of Legal Regulation of the Conservation of Sacred Places within the Cultural Landscape: The Case of the Republic of Kazakhstan <p style="text-align: justify;">In recent years, there has been growing attention to the preservation of sacred sites and understanding their significance within the cultural landscape of the Republic of Kazakhstan.&nbsp; This renewed interest is driven by a revival of national historical and cultural values. The study is relevant since sacred spaces affect the formation of objective historical memory, which is an important component of the national identity. This, in turn, contributes to the consolidation of the people and ensures the national security of the state. The article aims to propose measures (recommendations) to improve legal regulation and preserve the sacred places of the cultural landscape of Kazakhstan. To achieve these objectives, the authors employed methods of theoretical generalization, structural-logical analysis, and synthesis, as well as the method of expert survey. The paper identifies the main problems in the implementation of legal norms for the conservation of cultural landscapes and suggests potential solutions to overcome these challenges. It also outlines measures to increase public participation in the preservation of the cultural landscape. This study concludes that it is necessary to popularize knowledge about the specific features of sacred places in a particular region, develop a program for the preservation of the cultural landscape, and advise residents on the methods and means of preserving sacred places.</p> Farida Mussatayeva Kuralay Yermagambetova Saira Shamakhay Zhazira Baisarina Tolganay Mustafina Copyright (c) 2024 Farida Mussatayeva, Kuralay Yermagambetova, Saira Shamakhay, Zhazira Baisarina, Tolganay Mustafina 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 92 103 10.32350/jitc.141.06 Origin of Islamophobia in Europe: A Case Study of Hungary <p style="text-align: justify;">The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in 2001 proved to be a turning point in the relationship between Islam and the West. Subsequently, the United States (US) invaded Iraq to avenge the tragedy. The US called its militaristic venture into the Middle East as an "act against terror." This invasion triggered a political crisis in the Middle Eastern countries. This situation was further aggravated by the Arab Spring, which occurred in the Middle East in 2011. The Arab Spring created problems in Syria, Iraq, Egypt, and Tunisia. Political instability in the Middle East has forced Arab people to immigrate to European countries. The increase in Arab immigrants in the early 21<sup>st</sup> century fueled Islamophobia in Europe. Hungary is one of the European countries that has accepted many Arab immigrants. This studydiscusses the relationship between the rise of Arab migration and the increase of Islamophobia in Europe, particularly in Hungary. A qualitative research approach was used to analyse various government and non-government reports and literature. This study argues that the increasing population of Arab immigrants in Europe has led to the emergence of right-wing political movements. These movemnets play a major role in carrying out Islamophobic propaganda in European&nbsp; social and cultural life.</p> Apipudin Alwi Alatas Copyright (c) 2024 Apipudin, Alwi Alatas 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 104 120 10.32350/jitc.141.07 Epistemology of Tafsīr, Ta'wīl, and Hermeneutics: Towards an Integrative Approach <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research comparatively examines the three models <em>tafsīr, ta’wīl</em>, and hermeneutics for understanding/interpreting the Qur’ānic text.. It aims to explore the epistemological structure of <em>tafsīr </em>(interpretation), <em>ta’wīl </em>(explanation of inner meaning), and hermeneutics, dissect the strengths and weaknesses of each, and propose a creative synthesis between these three elements. By using the comparative method, this research found that <em>tafsīr </em>tends to have an objective ethic guided by a linguistic approach (<em>dalālah luġawiyah</em>). On the other hand, <em>ta’wīl </em>tends to prioritize subjective personalities based on an intuitive and rational approach. Meanwhile, hermeneutics prioritizes intersubjectivity using historical, sociological, and psychological approaches. The argument based on the source of knowledge of <em>tafsīr </em>is text, while according to <em>ta’wīl</em> it is the "inner experience". However, the source of knowledge for hermeneutics is the world of the text, author, and the reader. Due to their advantages and disadvantages, this research recommends using an integrated approach for understanding the text (al-Quran). <em>Tafsīr </em>is used to explore external aspects of the text (language). Hermeneutics helps to understand the reader's contemporary situation with all the prejudices, assessments, and traditions surrounding it. At the same time, <em>ta’wīl </em>is necessary to relate the results obtained to the methods of interpretation and hermeneutics. In this case, the task of <em>ta’wīl </em>is to find the "deepest meaning" that connects the objectivity of <em>tafsīr </em>and the subjectivity of hermeneutics. This "deepest meaning" can be a moral idea <em>ʿillat al-ḥukm</em> (ratio legit) or Sharia goals (<em>maqāshid al-syarīʿah</em>).</p> Ilyas Supena Copyright (c) 2024 Ilyas Supena 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 121 136 10.32350/jitc.141.08 Iqbal's Spiritual Democracy and Habermas's Deliberative Democracy: A Comparative Study <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study is written in the context of the civilizational dialogue between the West and the Muslim world with reference to Jürgen Habermas and Muhammad Iqbal's political views. It explores the congruence and contrasts between Habermas's discourse theory of democracy or deliberative democracy and Iqbal's theory of spiritual democracy. This research strives to find out the extent to which the core values of Habermas's theory and that of Iqbal’s are compatible. For Habermas, the core values of social order are liberty and equality, whereas Iqbal upholds liberty, equality, and solidarity. It has been investigated whether they both mean the same phenomena by the same terms or not. For Habermas and Iqbal, democracy is the best form of government but neither one is satisfied with the existing democratic practices. In principle, they accept democracy as the best political system. The research paper also sheds light on the historical and cultural influences that have shaped the political ideologies of both Habermas and Iqbal, considering the impact of Western Enlightenment ideals on Habermas and the role of Islamic jurisprudence and spirituality in shaping Iqbal's democratic theory. Through critical analysis, this study aims to deepen the understanding of complexities inherent in the dialogue between Western and Muslim civilizations and offers insights into potential avenues for collaboration in political theory and practice.</p> Asad Shahzad Irfan Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 Asad Shahzad, Irfan Muhammad 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 137 152 10.32350/jitc.141.09 Interdisciplinary Studies: A Critical Review of the Concept, Paradigm, and Difficulties <p style="text-align: justify;">Interdisciplinarity constitutes one of the main drivers for the development of scientific knowledge as it contributes instimulating scientific research from different perspectives and methodologies and inreducing the isolation between disciplines. Although interdisciplinarity has become a common trend in scientific and academic circles of universities and research centers in recent years, the concept of interdisciplinarity remains largely controversial. The concept of interdisciplinarity is still fraught with confusion and ambiguity on many levels, including terminology, the model through which interdisciplinarity can be applied, and the methods or criteria through which interdisciplinarity can be detected. In this context, this research engages with the interdisciplinary studies through three main questions closely related to interdisciplinarity. The first question delves into the nature of interdisciplinarity research, scrutinizing prevalent ideas surrounding it. The second question explores proposed models for interdisciplinary research, their criteria, and examines whether a normative interdisciplinary model emerges from the literature. Whereas, the third question focuses on difficulties and opportunities facing interdisciplinary research in academic environments. In an attempt to answer these questions, several researchers from different disciplines participated in writing this research paper, where they engaged critically with the prevailing literature on interdisciplinarity, and presented a comprehensive theoretical review based on three levels of analysis.</p> Badrane Benlahcene Chedli Baya Chatti Hossain Mohammed Naimul Hoque Abdelaziz El-Khal Ali Bakir Copyright (c) 2024 Badrane Benlahcene, Chedli Baya Chatti, Hossain Mohammed Naimul Hoque, Abdelaziz el Khal, Ali Bakir 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 153 174 10.32350/jitc.141.10 Upholding Faith and Religious Freedom: An Interpretation of the Qur’ānic Story of Young Cave Dwellers as a Religious Minority <p style="text-align: justify;">The study of religious freedom for minorities has various aspects, such as legal, human rights, sociological, cultural, and religious aspects. Unfortunately, efforts to find solutions to protect religious freedom for minority groups have not made adequate use of the religious perspective, particularly Islamic. This research paper aims to fill the gap by analyzing and interpreting the active efforts of young cave dwellers described in the Qur’ān as a minority group. For this purpose, it used the qualitative descriptive approach based on the thematic interpretation of the Qur’ān. The study covered the story of young cave dwellers as narrated in the Qur’ān in al-Kahf 18:9-26. The story was analyzed in terms of its narrative context, storyline, similarities with other similar stories, and other crucial aspects. It was found that young cave dwellers actively fought for religious freedom by combining firmness in faith and positive adaptation in interacting with the society. The story &nbsp;teaches us that religious freedom depends not only on the willingness of the majority group and the state but also on the proactive efforts of the minority group in behaving and acting on the diversity of religious views that surround them. For this reason, this paper contributes to provide conceptual solutions to the struggle of minority groups to fight for religious freedom amid religious diversity and views of life.</p> Muh. Tasrif Copyright (c) 2024 Muh. Tasrif 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 175 190 10.32350/jitc.141.11 Eminence and Contributions of the Companions in the Development and Teaching of the Qur’ān in the First Hijri Century <p style="text-align: justify;">The process of Qur’ānic teaching in the Islamic world began during the Era of Revelation. Islamic history proves that the Qur’ān was inherited through <em>talaqqī bi al-Mushāfahah</em> (direct oral transmission) from teacher (<em>murshid</em>) to student, passing through a chain of teachers until it reaches the source of its revelation that is Prophet Muḥammad. The companions of the Prophet played a significant role in spreading the message of Islam across the world during their time by teaching the Qur’ān to the <em>Ummah </em>(Muslim community). A significant number of modern Muslims don't have much knowledge about Islamic history, including the vital roles played by the companions in shaping and disseminating the teachings of the Qur’an. This research aims to provide a brief overview of the early history of the development and teaching of the Qur’ān in the first century of the <em>Hijri</em> and explored the scholarship of the companions involved. The study utilised a literary method and a historiographical approach. Each historical fact recorded was analysed through the process based on inductive (<em>taḥlīli</em>), deductive (<em>istinbāṭ</em>), and comparative (<em>muqāranah</em>) methods, while relying on the historical references as primary sources authored by the Islamic scholars. The findings revealed that a significant number of companions, not only Muslim men but also women, played an essential role in disseminating the Qur’ān during the first century of the <em>Hijri</em> calendar.</p> Norazman Alias Nor Hafizi bin Yusof Copyright (c) 2024 Norazman Alias, Nor Hafizi bin Yusof 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 191 208 10.32350/jitc.141.12 Local Civilization and Hadīth Traditions: Exploring Luqman Al-Hakim`s Conception of “Sparkling Pearls” in Latoa and its Relevance for Islamic Ethos Development <p style="text-align: justify;">This work explored the local wisdom values present within the classical manuscripts of Latoa and within Muhammadan tradition, employing descriptive qualitative and library approaches. A literature review was conducted to analyze primary data in the Latoa Classical Manuscript and Muhammadan Tradition in the Hadīh Books, and also to explore secondary data in various contemporary sources. Data were collected using note reading techniques with the assigning of codes. Each text was read in-depth and carefully categorized. This was followed by a reduction stage to select and sort the data. Finally, data were analysed through application of the Talcott Parsons’ theory on functionalism and structuralism. This study concluded that the values of local civilization contained in Luqman al-Hakim’s conception are <em>teppe</em> (faithful), <em>isseng</em> (knowledgeable), <em>gau patujue</em> (of good conduct), and <em>sirie`</em> (dignified). The “Sparkling Pearls” conception suggested by Luqman al-Hakim in the Latoa Manuscripts has great relevancy to developing functional structures of society, emphasizing the ethics of hard work, building character based on nationalism, and developing human behavior for better social interactions.</p> Mahsyar Idris Andi Bahri Soi St Nurhayati Ali Muhammad Yaumi Copyright (c) 2024 Mahsyar Idris, Andi Bahri Soi, St Nurhayati Ali, Muhammad Yaumi 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 209 230 10.32350/jitc.141.13 Enhancing Sustainability through Agricultural Zakāt -Based Philanthropy Movement: A Comprehensive Study on Social Welfare Capital <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Zakāt &nbsp;</em>on Agriculture, as one aspect of Islamic finance and philanthropy, is crucial in supporting community welfare and promoting sustainable agricultural practices. This research examines the philanthropy movement driven by agricultural <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;at Desa Mangga in the Langkat Regency, Indonesia. It adopts a qualitative approach, employing a phenomenological study through in-depth interviews. This research involved three key groups as research subjects: 10 amil <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;(who are responsible for <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;administration), 15 <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;payers, and 35 <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;recipients. The research findings reveal that philanthropic activities involving agricultural zakāt &nbsp;at Desa Mangga can be categorized into consumption-oriented and production-oriented activities. In contrast to the traditional approach of distributing <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;mainly to relieve financial burdens, Desa Mangga has adopted a more proactive strategy in managing agricultural <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;funds. The funds are directed towards productive businesses such as palm sugar production, stalls, and farmland management. As achieving complete economic independence continues, the effective allocation of agricultural <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;funds at Desa Mangga progressively empower recipients to become more economically self-reliant. Nevertheless, it is crucial to highlight that, in practice, the concept of empowerment within <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;philanthropy at Desa Mangga has yet to reach its full potential. Charitable activities still dominate the distribution of <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;funds, inadvertently fostering dependency among <em>zakāt </em>&nbsp;recipients.</p> Sahran Saputra Mujahiddin Yurisna Tanjung Copyright (c) 2024 Sahran Saputra, Mujahiddin, Yurisna Tanjung 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 231 246 10.32350/jitc.141.14 Al-Fatani's Perspectives on Islamic Family Law: Insights from Hidayah Al-Muta’allim Wa’Umdah Al-Muta’alim <p style="text-align: justify;">The evolution of Islamic Family Law in Malaysia is a nuanced amalgamation of Malay customs, cultural influences, and Islamic jurisprudence. Rooted in the history of Malaya, the formation of current Islamic Family Law reflects the fusion of these elements. This study delves into&nbsp; Daud Abdullah Al-Fatani's seminal work <em>Hidayah Al-Muta’allim Wa’Umdah Al-Muta’alim</em>, a pivotal contribution to Malaysian Islamic jurisprudence. Comparing Al-Fatani's insights with those of scholars from diverse schools of thought and contemporary Islamic Family Law enactments, the focus remains on key issues such as <em>Zihār, Khiyar, </em>and<em> Nusyuz.</em> The study reveals that Al-Fatani's perspectives transcend strict adherence to the Al-Shafi‘i school, while aligning with the Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories) Act 1984. His views on marriage dissolution and wife’s disobedience are influenced by Malay culture, while maintaining fidelity to the Qur’ān and <em>Sunnah</em> exemplified by his stance on <em>Zihār</em>. This resonates in Malaysia's current Islamic Family Law which is not rigidly bound to the Al-Shafi‘i school but intricately considers cultural conditions.</p> Ahmad Sharifuddin Mustapha Nur Zainatul Nadra Zainol Che Adenan Mohammad Mustapahayuddin Abdul Khalim Nik Kamal Wan Muhammed Muhamad Syazwan Faid Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmad Sharifuddin Mustapha, Nur Zainatul Nadra Zainol, Che Adenan Mohammad , Mustapahayuddin Abdul Khalim , Nik Kamal Wan Muhammed, Muhamad Syazwan Faid 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 247 265 10.32350/jitc.141.15 Imām al-Māwardī’s View on the Concept of Taxation (Kharaj) in al-Aḥkām Sultḥāniyyah <p style="text-align: justify;">Throughout the course of history, spanning centuries, taxation<em> (kharāj) </em>as sources of income of the state is significantly influential in the development of Islamic civilization. Within Islamic civilization, various principles governing the fundamental aspects of the state system, specifically in finance (fiscal and monetary) are formulated. The policy regulating state finance, with a particular focus on taxation, serves as evidence of the foundational principles of Islamic governance aimed at achieving justice and welfare for the people. The state taxation system arose due to the expansion of Islamic territories and the acquisition of spoils of war obtained by Muslims, whether through peace treaties <em>(fay’)</em> or warfare <em>(ghanīmah)</em>. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze the concept of taxation in Islam, with a particular focus on <em>al-Aḥkām as-Sultḥāniyyah </em>by Imām al-Māwardī. The conclusion drawn was that the theory of taxation had several advantages; firstly, the thoughts of Imām al-Māwardī regarding taxation were forward-looking, specifically in terms of the flexibility in determining the tax object by adapting it to the conditions of the tax object and subject. Secondly, the <em>imām's</em> conceptualization of taxation remained highly contextual, making it relevant for contemporary application.</p> Rahmad Hakim Ririn Noviyanti Copyright (c) 2024 Rahmad Hakim, Ririn Noviyanti 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 266 282 10.32350/jitc.141.16 Muslim Parents’ Communication Approach to Adolescents according to Al-Tarbiyyah Al-Rashīdah by ‘Abd al-Karīm Bakkār <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study attempted to define and examine the concept of family in the Islamic context. Specifically, it addressed the issues and challenges related to parental communication in the modern day based on the strategies and suggestions proposed by ‘Abd al-Karīm Bakkār in his book <em>Al-Tarbiyyah Al-Rashīdah (Successful Family Upbringing)</em>. This book is a guide to cultivating and nurturing a Muslim family in order to achieve the best outcomes through effective communication. The ultimate aim is to fortify the familial bonds. The current study used content analysis to examine and interpret the data extracted from the fourth volume of series entitled <em>Al-Murāhiq </em>(<em>The Adolescents</em>). This volume was the study’s main reference as it is set against the background of contemporary Muslim family issues along with suggested solutions by the author who identified certain strategies to enhance family ties and bonds. These strategies include kindness to relatives, effective interaction, listening, respecting, non-domination, and not pressurizing 5the children. Moreover, avoiding provocation of anger, paying attention to their problems as well as being polite to them are also among the strategies to enhance familial ties. The findings highlight the effectiveness of these strategies in bringing about positive parenting. Muslim parents therefore, can use ‘Abd al-Karīm Bakkār’s communication strategies to enhance their children’s moral, physical, mental, and spiritual development.</p> Safinah Ismail Abur Hamdi Usman Mariam Abd. Majid Abdul Wahab Md. Ali Rosmawati Mohamad Rasit Zulkefli Aini Siti Khaulah Mohd Hamzah Murghayah Copyright (c) 2024 Safinah Ismail, Abur Hamdi Usman, Mariam Abd. Majid, Abdul Wahab Md. Ali, Rosmawati Mohamad Rasit, Zulkefli Aini, Siti Khaulah Mohd Hamzah Murghayah 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 283 302 10.32350/jitc.141.17 A Waqf Empowerment Model Based on Benefit Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Waqf</em> endowment is an act of worship with various socioeconomic implications. At the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), <em>waqf</em> functioned as an instrument to meet the financial needs of the community. Indonesia has the highest Muslim population in the world. Hence, it has a high potential for creating <em>waqf </em>endowments. This study aims to analyze the usefulness of <em>waqf</em> and develop a model to empower <em>waqf</em> endowments, especially in West Java. A quantitative approach was used for data collection by distributing questionnaires to the beneficiaries of <em>waqf</em>. Moreover, in-depth interviews and literature studies were also conducted to collect the data. The results showed that the respondents perceived the religious dimension of <em>waqf</em> as very useful, although they found its economic dimension of little use and significance. Moreover, empowerment models regarding the economic dimension are presented in this research for some of the most important <em>waqf</em> endowments in West Java in particular and in Indonesia in general, namely mosques and educational institutions (schools/madrasas).</p> Encup Supriatna Dede Syarif Astri Afrilia Asri Sundari Paelani Setia Copyright (c) 2024 Encup Supriatna, Dede Syarif, Astri Afrilia, Asri Sundari, Paelani Setia 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 303 319 10.32350/jitc.141.18 Assumed Contradictions in the Qurʾān: An Analysis on Al-Alūsī’s Disputation of Al-Kindī in “The Apology of Al-Kindī” <p>The priest, ꜥAbd al-Masīḥ al-Kindī wrote an apology in response to Hashimi's invitation to convert to Islam. The apology included various criticisms he had made against Islam, including regarding the Qurʾān, the Prophet Muḥammad (PBUH), <em>Shariah</em> and so on. A decade later, in the 19th century, Nuꜥmān Khayr al-Dīn, the son of Abū Thanāʾ al-Alūsī penned his book entitled <em>al-Jawāb al-Fasīḥ li Mā Laffaqahu ꜥAbd al-Masīḥ</em> as a response to the criticisms made by ꜥAbd al-Masīḥ Kindī who claimed that the Qurʾān contained contradictory verses. This study aims to evaluate al-Alūsī’s arguments on the claims of al-Kindi. Two literatures, namely “The Apology of al-Kindī” and “<em>Al-Jawāb al-Fasīḥ li-mā Laffaqahu ꜥAbd al-Masīḥ”</em>, serve as the primary references for this study. The current research concludes that Alūsī's reconciliation of the assumed contradictory verses takes four forms: (1) to refer to occasions of revelation (<em>asbāb al-nuzūl</em>); (2) to consider the context of the verse (<em>siyāq</em>); (3) to provide the correct interpretation of the verse; and (4) to resort to abrogation (<em>naskh</em>).</p> Muhammad Arif Musa Muhammad Fawwaz Muhammad Yusoff Abd Muhaimin Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Arif Musa, Muhammad Fawwaz Muhammad Yusoff, Abd Muhaimin Ahmad 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 320 334 10.32350/jitc.141.19 Recontextualization of Fiqh Al-Siyāsah from the Perspective of Fiqh Al-Ḥaḍarah in Realizing World Peace <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of this research article is to investigate Nahdlatul Ulama's perspectives on the discourse of <em>Fiqh Al-Ḥaḍarah</em>, also known as "Fiqh of Civilization," within the context of contextualizing Islamic political thought toward the concept of global peace. Sociological disparities in national and state dynamics, keeping in view the intensity of conflict at the global level, demand the attention of the leaders from all across the world . <em>Fiqh Al-Ḥaḍarah</em> through the discourse <em>of Fiqh Al-Siyāsah</em>, &nbsp;advocates that the idea of peace contained in the UN charter has a strong basis in Islamic <em>Sharia</em>. All Muslims must campaign peace as a form of adherence to the <em>Sharia</em>. Therefore, the notions in classical <em>Fiqh Al-Siyāsah</em> must be interpreted and recontextualized as theyaim to straighten the view that politics in Islam is an intermediary for realizing prosperity through peace. This study used an annotated bibliography and descriptive qualitative method, while data was collected by using the desk research method. The approaches used included the textual-contextual approach, sociological approach to Islamic law, and critical theory. The results showed that <em>Fiqh Al-Ḥaḍarah</em> can be used to recontextualize <em>Fiqh Al-Siyāsah</em> in an ideal direction according to the needs and demands of the contemporary times. Similarly, <em>Fiqh Al-Ḥaḍarah</em> can present Islamic thought as a solution to establish peace and allow the emergence of a better civilization in the future.&nbsp;</p> Choirur Rois Agus Irfan Moh Toyyib Mohammad Mahbubi Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Choirur Rois, Agus Irfan, Moh Toyyib, Mohammad Mahbubi Ali 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 335 351 10.32350/jitc.141.20 Sufism Revisited: A Comprehensive Analysis of Emha Ainun Najib’s Philosophical Contributions to Modern Society <p style="text-align: justify;">This research explores the significant impact of modern Sufi teachings spearheaded by Emha Ainun Najib, or Cak Nun, on the members of Jamaah Maiyah in Indonesia. As a charismatic Muslim intellectual, Cak Nun introduces the concept of Tasawuf into the reality of modern life, emphasizing human values, tolerance, and local cultural heritage. The research employs a qualitative approach with a descriptive method, involving in-depth interviews with members and key figures of Jamaah Maiyah, as well as participatory observation of religious practices in various community activities, such as Pandang Bulan, Bang-bang Wetan, Kedirian, and Kenduri Cinta, held in 2023 in East Java, Indonesia. The findings highlight the positive reception of modern Sufi concepts by Jamaah Maiyah, connected to positive changes in religious practices and daily outlooks. The social and cultural impact manifests in attitudes of tolerance, social concern, and awareness of human values. Cak Nun’s teachings encourage members to engage in personal introspection and achieve a balance between the worldly pursuits and the spiritual endeavors. This research not only demonstrates the relevance of Tasawuf in the modern era but also identifies its contribution in shaping the character and perspectives of religious communities. These findings provide a profound understanding and insights into how modern Sufi teachings can act as a positive force in fostering positive attitudes and values in the contemporary society.</p> Robingatun Fidia Astuti Abdul Wasik Copyright (c) 2024 Robingatun, Fidia Astuti, Abdul Wasik 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 352 371 10.32350/jitc.141.21 Holy Kaaba Names in the Holy Qur’ān: A Stylistic Study <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study attempted to stylistically examine the names of the Holy Kaaba mentioned in the Holy Qur’ān in order to reveal the rhetorical expressions of each name. The study intended to reveal that each name of Kaaba is related to its linguistic and lexical meanings. It reflects the accuracy of the Holy Qur’ān to link these names with their meanings. Moreover, the study also focused on the most important structures and systems of the verses that encompass these names. Scholars believe that considering the Qur’ānic context is one aspect of the Qur’ānic <em>Ijaz</em> (inimitability). The rhetorical analysis of a text depends on the stylistic view of all its facets. Every name of Kaaba is fixed in its position and designed to fit in its context, based on the preference rule. Thus, the preference of the name comes in that particular position, not in the other one, since each name has its own definite aspects and characteristics which harmonize with the verses’ systems and contexts.</p> Abdulla Hassan Al-Qurni Yahya Abduladhim Hassanin Kamal Ahmed Mohammed Zein Muna Adil Fathi Abdulghani Copyright (c) 2024 Abdulla Hassan Al-Qurni, Yahya Abduladhim Hassanin, Kamal Ahmed Mohammed Zein, Muna Adil Fathi Abdulghani 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 14 1 372 386 10.32350/jitc.141.22