Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) is a peer-reviewed, bi-annual HEC recognized journal. JITC presents a trailblazing platform to Islamic scholars and social scientists for the publication of their research articles.</p> Department of Islamic Thought and Civilization, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 2075-0943 <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.&nbsp;</a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Transformation of Religious Institution in Turkey from the Ottoman Sheikh ul-Islam to the Modern Diyanet Institution https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2140 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper offers a critical analysis of the body of offices responsible for the regulation of the public religious affairs in Turkey with a historical perspective from the Ottoman Empire to the current Republican period. The paper has a specific goal to explore how the public bodies regulating the religious life have played their role for the purpose of ensuring political and social control in the country by reviewing the religious institution during the Ottoman era and comparing within the Republican period under three different ruling ages: the Republican People’s Party, the multi-party and the AK Party. A significant volume of research has been conducted on the various aspects of public religious offices; and have been reviewed for this purpose by using historical research design. The findings show that during the Ottoman Empire, the regulation of the spiritual life was marked by a strong influence of the <em>Sheikh ul-Islam </em>. However, this institution experienced a huge decline after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey when the new secular political system started to confiscate the powers of the <em>Sheikh ul-Islam </em>&nbsp;one by one to abolish it altogether eventually in 1924. <em>Diyanet</em> has been established in its place as a new religious institution to provide services for some spiritual practices with much-restricted powers and roles under the authority of a ministry. <em>Diyanet</em> came to this day without much change in its capabilities until the AK Party came into the government which intended to make it a more active and functional department as part of what is called its major political strategy of Islamization through democratization. It can be summed up that after almost two decades of its tenure, findings show that the AK Party has partially achieved its goal to introduce a major change in the character of Turkish secularism from the protection of people from religious authoritarianism to protection of religion from political authoritarianism compared with other previous political parties.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>: </strong><em>Diyanet </em>in Turkey, Religion in the Ottomans, Islamization via democratization<em>,</em> AK party</p> Nurhidayu Rosli Copyright (c) 2022 NURHIDAYU ROSLI https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 12 1 1 22 10.32350/jitc.121.01 The Concept of Well-being in Arab-Muslim Thought: Reviewing Related Literature, from Africa to Southeast Asia https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2181 <p style="text-align: justify;">The concept of well-being <em>“Ar-rafahiya”</em> has been addressed by the Holy Qur’ān, the <em>Sunnah</em> and several Arab-Muslim thinkers in the previous centuries through the idea of 'happiness,' <em>“As-sâada.”</em> With this backdrop, this article aims to highlight how the Arab-Muslim thought has defined, developed and used the concept of well-being over time. Additionally, it seeks to underscore the contributions of the Holy Qur’ān, the <em>Sunnah</em> and the Arab Muslim thinkers and philosophers regarding ethical principles that aim to foster human well-being through a balanced subsistence that is free of both excess and deficiency. To elaborate on this subject, we analyze some literature reviews by authors from the Muslim countries in Africa, the Middle East and the Southeast Asia as well as other countries. Finally, we conclude that the definitions of the concept of well-being and its realization have always been demarcated in the Arab-Muslim thought by the recognition of Allah Almighty by a human and the satisfaction of Allah Almighty with human acts. Moreover, we clarify how the contemporary Arab-Muslim thought considers the principles of Islamic economic theory. This clarification therefore enables us to understand how contemporary Arab-Muslim thinkers, especially in Southeast Asia, envision the concept of social well-being. Finally, we show that the general concept of well-being in the Western thought stems from a specific influence of the Arab-Muslim thought.</p> Khadija Loudghiri Abdesselam Fazouane Copyright (c) 2022 khadija Loudghiri, Abdesselam Fazouane https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 12 1 23 47 10.32350/jitc.121.02 Revisiting Omani Legacy in Malaya through the Royal Kedah Dress: Reassessment https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2225 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper seeks to examine the legacy of the Omani presence in the states of Malaysia, which arguably has made itself apparent in the royal dress of the Kedah Sultanate. This discovery indeed calls for further investigation, especially on how the Omani dress later became a model for Kedah royal dress which is famously known as <em>Baju Muskat</em>. Further analysis is essential to determine to what extent did the Kedah Sultanate adopted the Omani dress of the <em>Muscati</em> style and what aspects of the Kedah royal dress resemble the Omani dress substantially. Preliminary research indicates that there are few similarities that one can find between the Omani dress with that of the Kedah royal dress, which is said to be worn by the latter since the 17th century. Reading through the existing literature in the field also reveals one interesting picture that points to the underrepresentation of Omani individuals, merchants, and scholars in the Malay texts as the former tends to describe them, often as Arab traders, or Persian traders. In short, this paper has attempted to explore and examine the above-mentioned circumstances for a better understanding of the subject matter under study through a method of content analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<em>:</em></strong> Well-being, Happiness, Subsistence, Ethical Principles, Arab-Muslim Thought</p> Mohamad Firdaus Mansor Majdin Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. Osman Fauziah Fathil Md. Salleh Yaapar Saleh Al Zuheimi Copyright (c) 2022 RAHMAH BT AHMAD H. OSMAN, Mohamad Firdaus Mansor Majdin, Fauziah Fathil, Md. Salleh Yaapar, Saleh Al Zuheimi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 12 1 48 74 10.32350/jitc.121.03 “I Want to Withdraw My Hibah”: Why and How to Explain it? https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1577 <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Hibah</em> or Islamic inter-vivos plays a vital role in reducing unclaimed inheritance estate problems, aiding recipients, and expecting recipients’ care. However, there are cases of withdrawn <em>hibah</em> that have been argued in the court. This study was performed to understand this problem by interviewing <em>hibah</em> experts in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was applied to find an overview of why donors withdraw their <em>hibah</em> by interviewing 19 respondents who are <em>hibah</em> experts in Malaysia. There were two main themes which were ‘Donor’s desire’ and ‘Recipient’s attitude.’ ‘Donor’s desire’ can be understood by the desire of donor to get benefits from the property that has been perfectly transferred or if the donor still resides on the property. Meanwhile, ‘Recipient’s attitude’ describes a change in recipients’ attitude such as ignoring and expelling the donors from the transferred property. The recipients also might sell the transferred property. This reason leads to donors wanting to withdraw their <em>hibah</em>. This study’s findings recommend that absolute <em>hibah</em> needs to be replaced with <em>hibah</em> legal documentation or living trust. These types of <em>hibah</em> are recognized by <em>Shar</em><em>ī</em><em>‘ah</em> and Civil law and enable the donors to withdraw their <em>hibah</em> during lifetime. This study is the first attempt to discuss profoundly withdrawn <em>hibah</em> in qualitative approach. The paper offers an additional study on <em>hibah</em> practice in Malaysia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Thematic analysis, <em>Hibah</em>, Islamic inheritance, Inter-vivos, Withdrawn <em>hibah</em>.</p> Mohd Khairy Kamarudin Nasrul Hisyam Nor Muhamad Suhaili Alma'amun Norhaifa Ganti Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Khairy Kamarudin, Nasrul Hisyam Nor Muhamad, Suhaili Alma'amun, Norhaifa Ganti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 12 1 75 95 10.32350/jitc.121.04 Alexandria, the Threshold of Egypt: A Comparative Study on Volney and Jabarti's Idea of Alexandria in the Late 18th Century https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1865 <p style="text-align: justify;">Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt; this city is the threshold of Egypt and the first place by the sea where travelers encounter and create an idea of Egypt in their minds. Many western travelers, such as Hartmann Schedel, André Thevet, Jacob Peeters, Charles Perry, Volney, Dumont, and others have visited Alexandria and wrote reports on the City past and present, through which their opinions of the city can be accessed. Without a doubt, looking at Alexandria from a traveler's point of opinion differs from the opinions of a person who has lived there and observed the city from the inside. The question is how each of these two perspectives encounters the city. What questions have each of them asked and what answers have they given? And do these questions and answers come from their social and cultural background? Can a comparison of these two opinions provide a picture of the city to help better understand its history? It seems that the questions and answers of these observers come from their social backgrounds. At the same time Volney (1757-1820) lived in France, Abdul Rahman bin Hassan al-Jabarti (1825-1753) lived in Egypt. In this study, using an asymmetric macro-comparison method, we have attempted to evaluate the information in Volney's travelogue and Jabarti's ''Ajāeb-al Asār'' based on their perspective of the inside (Jabarti) and outside (Volney) of Alexandria. In his introduction to the late 18<sup>th</sup> century Alexandria, Volney seems to be much attached to the ideas from the French society, At the same time, Jabarti did not pay much attention to the question of Alexandria's urbanization and focused more on those who went to the city and left it. He laid the focus on the political and military situation of the city.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Alexandria, Volney, Jabarti, Egyptology, Travelogue, Travel Theory</p> Sayyed Kamal Keshiknevis Razavi Abbas Ahmadvand Mina Moazzeni Copyright (c) 2022 Sayyed Kamal Keshiknevis Razavi, Abbas Ahmadvand, Mina Moazzeni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 12 1 96 113 10.32350/jitc.121.05 Bediuzzaman Said Nūrsi and the Nature of Human Creation in his Major Works: Considering a New Breakthrough in Islamic Philosophy https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1708 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper aimed to analyse Bediuzzaman Said Nūrsi’s ideas regarding the nature of human creation in his major works. In order to achieve such goal, this paper utilized a ‘conceptual analysis’ method to reveal Nūrsi’s elaboration on the concept. The research found that humans, according to Nūrsi, arise from the mother's womb with God's fondness -Rahīm- governed with the eternal pact in the metaphysical realm to be ‘abid in the physical world, who are expected to fulfil their responsibility as God's servant by worshipping Him and Him alone in the form of honest submission. Furthermore, worship is only possible via the perfect actualization of intellect, and recognizing the essence of worship is the Amānah to be the vicegerent of God -Khalīfatullāh- as humans will discover a comprehensive understanding of God -Ma'rifātullah- through their worldly journey. This work finally ended with a reflection pertaining to the possibility of the philosophical thoughts of Nūrsi as a breakthrough in advancing Islamic philosophy in the present age.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bediuzzaman Said Nūrsi, Human Creation, Islamic Philosophy, <em>Khalīfatullah, </em>Risale-i Nūr</p> Nur Hadi Ihsan Ridani Faulika Permana Abdullah Muslich Rizal Maulana Copyright (c) 2022 Nur Hadi Ihsan, Ridani Faulika Permana, Abdullah Muslich Rizal Maulana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 12 1 114 137 10.32350/jitc.121.06 Understanding ‘God as Reality’: Analysis of the Ontological Approach in the Tradition of Islamic Philosophy and Sufism https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1757 <p>In contrast to the West, which considers God as a myth and negates values ​​about reality and truth, the Muslim philosophers and Sufis base their knowledge on the concept of God that has been established in Islam. This article describes the approach of the Sufis and the Muslim philosophers regarding God as reality and truth. By using the descriptive analysis method, this study draws conclusions based on various arguments: <em>first</em>, there is a meeting point between the two, especially in terms of 'al-Haqq' as one of the 'Names' (<em>asmā</em>) of Allah which also means 'reality' and 'truth' which are linguistically unified. Therefore, everything that is called 'reality' has to do with the existence of God which provides wisdom behind all reality as God's creation. Because God created reality with a 'true' purpose. <em>Second,</em> despite the fundamental differences in various worldviews, the West has never assumed that God is Reality in itself because its worldview has negated the Diversity of metaphysical reality. This is also affirmed, only at the metaphysical level as 'speculative science' or 'noumena' in Kant's account. <em>Third,</em> different from the West in Islam, there are various treasures of intellectual property discussions about God as Reality. Although there are many schools in understanding God as Reality, the Muslims have almost the same opinion because they affirm revelation as the only authoritative source of explanation for the concept of God.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Reality, Truth, Muslim philosophers, Sufism, al-Haqq, Worldview, Epistemology</p> Jarman Arroisi Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi Mohammad Syam’un Salim Muhammad Taqiyuddin Copyright (c) 2022 Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi, Jarman Arroisi, Mohammad Syam’un Salim, Muhammad Taqiyuddin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 12 1 138 163 10.32350/jitc.121.07 The Spiritual Aesthetics of Islamic Ornamentation and the Aesthetic Value in Islamic Architecture https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1900 <p style="text-align: justify;">Islamic architecture, a form of Islamic art, contributes significantly to portraying God Almighty's supremacy. In Islamic art, there are numerous ways to place emphasis on this architecture; one of which is through high aesthetic value. In Islamic art and architecture, the greatest extent of ornamentation and&nbsp;motifs&nbsp;probably describe aesthetic values. Islamic ornamentation&nbsp;serves as a platform for delivering information about Islam's culture including Islamic values and identity. Additionally,&nbsp;the most distinguishing characteristic of Islamic ornamentation is the richness of meaning behind it, that might influence a person's perception of spiritual aesthetics. Therefore, this article explore what spiritual aesthetic means and how it relates to Islamic ornamentation. Furthermore, Islamic ornamentation should be considered a part of the interior of the Islamic architecture rather than just decorations added after the fact or to cover in&nbsp;gaps. Through the interplay of the people and interior space, these ornaments&nbsp;have the potential to engage&nbsp;with human aesthetics. Therefore, this research also focuses on the aesthetics and beauty of ornaments, which satisfy one of human&nbsp;psychological needs: to be in a beautiful environment. Because emphasis of the research is&nbsp;to explore how people&nbsp;perceive the aesthetics of Islamic ornamentation, a semiotics method was chosen because of its capacity to transcend literal meanings. The identification and evaluation of the aesthetic and religious qualities of the Islamic ornamentation brought out in this paper can be very helpful for the artists as well as scholars in understanding the Islamic art.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> </em>Islamic Ornaments, Islamic Architecture, Aesthetic Value, Spiritual Aesthetics, Islamic Art, Architectural Ornaments</p> Fatima Zahra Safrizal Bin Shahir Copyright (c) 2022 Fatima Zahra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 164 175 10.32350/jitc.121.08 Khwārazmshāhids Policy against Caliph Al-Nāsser Strategy to Regain Political Power of the Caliphate and Its Consequences in Irān https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2364 <p style="text-align: justify;">With the establishment of the Caliphate foundation, Iranians disappointed with accessing their own political aims through cooperating with the Caliphate, gradually started to reconstruct their kingdom regime and began a competition that somehow had a tough hostility towards Abbasids. In such a situation, the Abbasids, especially the Caliph al-Nasser, followed the process of recovering the Caliphate political hegemony, while and the Khwarizmi’s, in parallel, were planning a rigid dominance on Islamic world’s eastern regions including Baghdad, the capital of the Caliphate, to restrict its power in religious affairs. But after several battles between the armies of both sides, Sultan Muhammad Khwārazmshāh failed finally. This article attempts to recognize and analyze the motives and causes of the contrast that existed between these two power centers and their subsequent political and military consequences.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Abbasid </em>Caliphate<em>, Al-Nāsser Ledin-Allah, Khwārazmshāh, Sultān Muhammad, </em>the<em> Ismāilia.</em></p> Siavash Yari Copyright (c) 2022 Siavash Yari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 176 185 10.32350/jitc.121.09 The Development of Waqf in the Middle East and its Role in Pioneering Contemporary Islamic Civilization: A Historical Approach https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1252 <p style="text-align: justify;">This article focuses on the history of the development of waqf (endowment) in the Middle East and its role in pioneering contemporary Islamic civilization. Waqf has been a supporting pillar for the upholding of the social-religious institutions of society for centuries. The method taken in this research is the historical-phenomenological approach. The result shows that waqf began to be known and practiced since the Prophet Muhammad built the Quba and the Nabawi Mosque. The same was further promoted by the Righteous Caliphs (Khulafa al-Rashidin) and the caliphs afterward. In the next period, waqf became rapidly developing in the Middle Eastern countries, such as Egypt, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Sudan, Kuwait, and Syria. The development of waqf is not only in religious facilities but also in agricultural land, plantations, educational institutions, apartments, money, and shares. All of them are managed productively, and their use varies greatly. Waqf played an urgent role even in pioneering contemporary Islamic civilization. There are two patterns of management of waqf assets for the development of Islamic civilization: first, the development of waqf for social activities, such as waqf for social justice, people's welfare, education development, health facilities, public policy advocacy, legal assistance, environmental preservation, the development of arts and culture and other programs; second, development of economic value, such as for the development of trade, industry, property purchase, and other economic activities.<br><em><strong>Keywords:</strong></em> Endowments, Development of <em>Waqf</em>, Social Activities, Contemporary Islamic Civilization</p> Abdurrohman Kasdi Abdul Karim Umma Farida Miftahul Huda Copyright (c) 2022 Abdurrohman Kasdi, Abdul Karim, Umma Farida, Miftahul Huda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 186 198 10.32350/jitc.121.10 An Anthropological Perspective of Female share in Inheritance: An Appraisal of Gender Gap between Islamic Law and Practice https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2166 <p style="text-align: justify;">In many developing countries, the people cannot enjoy their basic human rights. Majority of women are refused their rights to admittance, own, or inherit land and property. As a result, they cannot afford to buy land. This deprivation makes them dependent on good marital and family relations. The right to inheritance is a legal and very legitimate right of every person, which has been given by Islam to women in very explicit words but unfortunately the custom of Pakistan is different regarding giving female legal right of inheritance. The chief objective of this research is to find out the causes of depriving women of their right to inheritance. For the accomplishment of the objectives of research, quantitative research method has been adopted. A survey was conducted in four public sector universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The questionnaire was used as a research tool. Including highly educated faculty and students were selected for the collection of Data. These data were later analyzed to draw the results of the research. The research covers two main aspects. Firstly, the awareness level of the educated class about their rights and prevailing laws; and secondly, the major societal causes of depriving women of their inheritance right. Findings of the survey indicates that women are deprived of their religious right of inheritance even in the highly educated sector due to financial, social and cultural issues. Inheritance law is one of the key leavers for the sustainable development of the society which provides social justice and wellbeing for the family. Therefore, the inheritance law needs be implemented through public awareness regarding the Islamic Shania and state laws.<br><em><strong>Keywords:</strong></em> Inheritance, Islamic Law, Gender, Culture, Property rights, Sustainable development</p> Farhana Mehmood Manahil Yaqoob Nasira Mehmood Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Farhana Mehmood, Manahil Yaqoob, Nasira Mehmood https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 199 213 10.32350/jitc.121.11 The Principles of a Circular Economy in the Light of Islamic Values and Beliefs https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2113 <p style="text-align: justify;">The model of circular economy, inspired from the circular nature of the ecosystem, has emerged as an environmentally sustainable alternative against the contemporary environmentally destructive model of organizing the economy. However practical progress toward a circular economy is perhaps obstructed by the ideals and values of capitalism which encourage accumulation and competition for self-interest. So in contrast to the values and ideals of capitalism, this research paper takes the position that Islamic beliefs and values – where the Muslims are expected to view themselves as stewards toward nature, where wastage is a sin, where sharing and cooperating are highly encouraged – may act as facilitators in transition toward circularization and subsequent conservation of the natural environment. Keeping in view the criticality of the environmental crisis, it is perhaps urgently necessary to highlight the shortcomings of the capitalist values and ideals in contrast with the advantages of Islamic beliefs and values for the purpose of bringing the sociocultural and economic transformation necessary to avert the collapse of the ecosystem. Policy makers concerned with the preservation of the ecosystem can therefore engage the religious scholarship to convince the business community and the general public to consider economic circularization as a religious responsibility in the light of the analysis and recommendations put forward in this paper.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Circular-economy, Social Embeddedness, Gift Economy, Environmental Crisis, Environmental Sustainability</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>JEL Classifications:</strong> A13, D91, E71, Q54, M14, Z1, Z12</p> Omar Javaid Copyright (c) 2022 Omar Javaid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 214 230 10.32350/jitc.121.12 Application of Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis Model to Quranic Verses Discussing Peaceful Dealing with Hypocrites https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2094 <p style="text-align: justify;">Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary research approach which declares that discourse is mutually related to social activities and power relations. This approach decodes the structure and hidden ideology of a text by describing and analyzing its language, context and current social and temporal situation. Some of the verses in the Holy Qur’an that deal with hypocrisy discuss dealing with hypocrites peacefully and have a discursive structure. The present study examined these verses as an ideological discourse based on Fairclough’s CDA to elucidate thematic verses’ capacity in the process of meaning creation and open up new horizons for researchers to analyze the thematic verses. The results have revealed that, at the description level, discourse components such as the expressive value of words, active and imperative sentences, and modality in verses are closely tied to dealing with hypocrites peacefully. The situational context analysis at the interpretation level has revealed that the enunciation style of the verses’ textual layer is fully compatible with the social and temporal conditions at the time of their revelation. Analysis at the explanation level demonstrated the depth of the Divine revelation about hypocrisy, suggesting that these verses aim to promote the hegemony of monotheism, trust in God, patience, piety, and forgiveness in the Islamic society in addition to peaceful coexistence.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords</strong>:</em> The Holy Qur’an, Peaceful coexistence, Discourse analysis, Fairclough’s approach, Ideology</p> Fathyieh Fattahizadeh Fereshteh Motamad Langrodi Copyright (c) 2022 fereshteh motamad langrody, Fathyieh Fattahizadeh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 231 246 10.32350/jitc.121.13 Classical Islamic Political Thought: A Perspective on Al-Âdāb As-Sulṭāniyya (Review) https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2372 <p style="text-align: justify;">From the raw egalitarian Quranic narratives on the idea of justice to the varied aspects of the prophetic idea of the <em>polis</em>, the genre of political thought has emerged as an extension of the larger epistemic worldview of Islam. The relationship between the ruler and the ruled has remained, for long, a part of a larger political project of Muslim imagination a nd a theoretical framework for political thinking. Yet, sub-genres like <em>al-Âdāb As-Sulṭāniyya </em>(literature of <em>Sultanic</em> ethics) and other concepts such as <em>Hisba</em> have not been generally well served by scholarship except within rather narrow constraints of the political history insofar as only a small number of individual thinkers have been the focus of particular interest. Basic research and monographic studies in the field of <em>al-Âdāb As-Sulṭāniyya </em>have generally been rather sparse. Consequently, systematic and synthetic studies – as opposed to summary statements – have been few and far between. This review article is part of the researcher’s larger project to excavate a few works in the genre of <em>al-Âdāb As-Sulṭāniyya </em>and investigate the development of this field in the classical period.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Classical Islamic political thought was not an independent field of study, and its contributions can be found in different types of writing that span three disciplines with distinct methods, aims, orientations and conclusions. These disciplines are: <em>fiqh</em>, such as <em>al-Ahkam As-Sulṭāniyya w’al-Wilayat al-Diniyya</em> by al-Māwardī; Islamic philosophy such as <em>al-Madina al-Fadila</em> by al-Farabi; and <em>al-Âdāb As-Sulṭāniyya</em> (the main focus of this article). For instance, unlike <em>al-Ahk</em>ā<em>m As-Sulṭāniyya </em>books, <em>al-Âdāb As-Sulṭāniyya</em> does not deal with <em>fiqh</em> and legal issues related to the legitimacy of authority i.e., when a sultan should be removed from his position, and how he can be appointed. And unlike the philosophy concentration on the city like in <em>al-M</em>ā<em>d</em>ī<em>na al-F</em>ā<em>dila</em></p> Fadi Zatari Copyright (c) 2022 Fadi Zatari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 247 252 10.32350/jitc.121.14 Moderation in Islam: A Comparative Case Study on Perception of International Students in Malaysia https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2171 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;Moderation in Islam was defined by Holy Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) as the ‘Way of Islam’. He has emphasized on opening a man’s heart to communal welfare and peace by avoiding scepticism. Moderation reifies faith, rejects extremism, and paves all roads to peaceful conflict resolution. Islamic moderation balances democratic social development in the face of restraints and boundaries to purchase sustainable peace. However, some schools of thought that appeal to Middle East and African Muslims hold forth the extremist ideology that has tarnished Islam globally. They ignore fundamental Islamic principles and archetypal Muslim characteristics thus they completely ignore Islam’s path of moderation. This study compares thoughts on Islamic moderation from the West Asian students (WAS) with the rest of Asian students (AS) studying in Malaysia. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, we have tried to achieve research objectives and found that WAS understood less of Islamic moderation than did the students from the rest of Asia. The Chi-square statistic was used to critically test the unique results of this study. The overall findings have revealed bigoted and negative WAS opinions towards Islamic moderation as well as towards non-Muslim societies. The Chauvinism appeared to be consequent to Arab permeated cultures and indoctrinations. Such perceptions and ignorance of authentic Islam affects the entire world with deeply negative overtones.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords: </strong></em>Social-religion Insight, Islamic Moderation, Chauvinism, Scepticism, Indoctrinations, Fundamental Islamic principles, Archetypal Muslim Characteristics, Communal Welfare, Sustainable Peace</p> Mansoureh Ebrahimi Kamaruzaman Yusoff Arieff Salleh Bin Rosman Copyright (c) 2022 Mansoureh Ebrahimi, Arieff Salleh Bin Rosman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 12 1 253 269 10.32350/jitc.121.15 Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry's Contribution in his As-Shirath al-Mustaqim to Popularizing Islamic Law in the Nusantara https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2141 <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper aimed to discuss the contribution of Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry in popularizing Islamic Law through his work <em>al-Shirath al-Mustaqim</em> in the Nusantara. Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry was a prominent scholar among the Nusantara Scholars who had a major influence on the intellectual and spiritual development of the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam in the 17<sup>th</sup> century AD. He is a scholar who is known as an expert in fiqh (Islamic Law) and served as a judge (Qadli Malikul Adil) just during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Tsani. Therefore, this study aims to examine Shaykh Nuruddin Ar-Raniry's contribution to Islamic law through his book entitled <em>as-Shirath al-Mustaqim</em>. The research method in this study is a library study by analyzing the books of Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry and other books related to this study. This study explains that Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry contributed to grounding the Islamic jurisprudence of the Syafii Madhhab in Nusantara in the 17th century AD through his work as-Shirath al-Mustaqim and encouraged the later Nusantara scholars in advancing Islamic legal literacy in Nusantara.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Shaykh Nuruddin ar-Raniry, As-Shirath al-Mustaqim, Islamic Jurisprudence</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Dzulkifli Hadi Imawan Amnan Copyright (c) 2022 Dzulkifli Hadi Imawan Amnan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 12 1 270 281 10.32350/jitc.121.16 Religion and Belonging: Voices of Lahore’s Khawajasira’s Community https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2381 <p style="text-align: justify;">A phenomenological study was conducted to understand religious practices of <em>khawajasira</em><em>s</em>, with an emphasis on instances where Islam provides a historically-rooted identity and offers belonging, and to highlight the challenges faced by them in exercising their fundamental rights. Six in-depth interviews were conducted from Lahore’s <em>khawajasira </em>community. Theoretically, the study utilized the theory of marginality for the refinements of its findings. The study was divided into two phases. The first one offered an overview of organization and rights of <em>khawajasira</em> people globally, in Pakistan, and within Islamic thought. The second phase dealt with the study’s empirical findings in the domains of preferred gender identity, societal discrimination, and appeal and challenges of religious affinity. The findings indicated that most participants wanted to articulate a feminine identity. Additionally, five of them had been abandoned by their birth families in early childhoods. Then, broader <em>khawajasira</em> community and civil society organizations were instrumental in sustaining their survival. With respect to religion, all participants identified themselves as the practicing Muslims – where religion was a source of personal comfort, its social practice was found to evoke a negative response as well because Islam has also guided the majority of the participants to seek <em>halāl </em>work. On the basis of the study findings, it is argued that the status of <em>khawajasira</em> community should be restored in the light of Islamic teachings and that the restoration of their historical and religious belonging along with the assurance of equal citizenship rights.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Khawajasira</em><em>,</em> Community, Islam, Religion, Discrimination</p> Muniba Tariq Iram Rubab Hafiza Shahida Parveen Copyright (c) 2022 Muniba Tariq, Dr. Iram Rubab, Dr. Hafiza Shahida Parveen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 12 1 282 296 10.32350/jitc.121.17 Civilizational Problem or Political Crisis? Comparative Analysis of Mālek Bennabi and Syed Mawdūdī’s Approach to Renaissance https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2333 <p style="text-align: justify;">After having reached the stage where Islamic civilization <em>delivered</em> optimum, it started declining. Nevertheless, in different epochs of Islamic history, some remarkable personalities emerged reclaiming the functionality of <em>iḥyā</em>; i.e., the <em>renaissance</em> principle. In the contemporary times, Mālek Bennabī and Syed Mawdūdī have phenomenally contributed to the Muslim <em>renaissance</em> discourse. Both of them have critically examined the <em>pathology</em> of <em>jum</em><em>ū</em><em>d</em>; i.e., the tendency of stagnation in the Muslim world. Although, they identified similar causes and symptoms, nevertheless, having <em>lived</em> in different socio-political contexts, they came up with certain methodological differences in their approach. Both the scholars developed a systematic <em>response</em> suggesting a way forward--the method of renaissance. In Bennabī’s discourse, the <em>pathology</em> is fundamentally <em>civilizational</em>, i.e., crisis in the civilizational equation between man, soil and time. While in Mawdūdī’s discourse, the <em>pathology</em> is fundamentally <em>political</em>; i.e., crisis in the nature of political relation between state, society and religion. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to present following points. First, the paper presents a brief analysis of Bennabī’s <em>civilizational</em> approach and Mawdūdī’s <em>political</em> approach in order to understand their scheme of thought while engaging with the question of <em>jum</em><em>ū</em><em>d</em> and<em> iḥyā</em>. Second, the paper juxtaposes the three key concepts namely <em>civilization</em>, <em>religion</em>, and <em>revival</em> used by both Bennabī and Mawdūdī in their theoretical elaborations to outline the differences and similarities in their method of analysis.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em> </strong>Islam, Decline, Renaissance, Civilizational Approach, Political Approach</p> Bilal Ahmad Malik Copyright (c) 2022 Bilal Ahmad Malik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 12 1 297 308 10.32350/jitc.121.18 Structural Positioning of Mosque in the Development Plan of the Federal Capital of Pakistan https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2323 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this research is to create an understanding regarding the relationship between Grand Mosques in urban structure of the Islamic Communities. For this study, Faysal Mosque, Grand Mosque of the Federal Capital of Pakistan, Islamabad, has been selected as a primary site of inquiry for investigating function and purpose of a mosque in an Islamic community.&nbsp; Using a conceptual framework developed using Michel Foucault’s framework for Enunciative Modalities and design analysis of key examples of major grand mosques in the Islamic history, the paper highlights that a grand mosque holds a vital position in the historic Islamic cities. Its placement at an anchoring point generally connects it with the urban fabric of the city. Historically, the vital positioning in the mosque is also associated with the diverse function that generally work as a school, a treasury, a lecture hall, a guest room, and place of worship. However, with the evolution of the Muslim societies the mosque’s function was confined to a religious place and a school as the rest of the function were shifted into more specialized buildings. Through the assessment of architectural, political, and sociological impacts, however, it has been concluded that whether modern or traditional, the Islamic city was never conceptualized without the grand mosque<strong>.</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Mosque Architecture, Faysal Mosque, Modernity, Symbolism</p> Mansoor Ahmed Shama Anbrine Copyright (c) 2022 Mansoor Ahmed, Shama Anbreen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 12 1 309 319 10.32350/jitc.121.19 Waqf Properties Act 2020 and the Constitution of Pakistan: A Critical Study https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2463 <p style="text-align: justify;">Occasionally some laws are enacted without proper deliberation and comprehensive understanding of the issue in focus. The same can be said about The Waqf Property Act 2020 which was passed in Islamabad and all the provinces of Pakistan in September 2020 in which some new laws were made and some previous laws were amended. The Rules regarding Awqāf Act were disseminated across all the provinces and advertised on national media. Having explained the rules of the Act, some guardians of the Waqf properties were also issued notices. However, the Waqf Property Act has received a social backlash from ulamas, the political fraternity &amp; the public. It is said that the Act is not only against the Islamic law but is also against the Constitution of Pakistan. Keeping this scenario in view the aim of this paper was set to discuss the violation of the Constitution that has occurred in the enactment of this law. For this purpose the original text of the Waqf Property Act 2020 along with certified references have been analyzed so that the gaps in the focused law are fully identified. The findings of the study can provide a good insight to the law makers as well as common readers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong></em> Waqf, Constitution of Pakistan, Fundamental Rights, Religious Minorities, Sharī‘ah</p> Hafiz Hassan Madni Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Hafiz Hassan Madni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 12 1 320 330 10.32350/jitc.121.20