Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) is a peer-reviewed, bi-annual HEC recognized journal. JITC presents a trailblazing platform to Islamic scholars and social scientists for the publication of their research articles.</p> Department of Islamic Thought and Civilization, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 2075-0943 <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.&nbsp;</a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> The Concepts of Statehood and the Ideal Ruler in the Golden Horde Literature: The Husraw and Shirin of Qutb https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2613 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper studies the concepts of statehood, governance and the ideal ruler in the Golden Horde literature through a synthesis of political thought, philosophy, religious ethics and poetry presented in a poem by Qutb named <em>Husraw and Shirin</em> (written in 1342). The first part of the paper provides an overview of the Golden Horde civilization and suggests that its intellectual culture accumulated the all-inclusive scholarly, literary and scientific achievements of that time with the most advanced scholarly and educational centers. The following parts provide a general idea about Qutb and his <em>Husraw and Shirin</em>, including its plot and main ideas. The last part analyses the concepts of statehood and an ideal ruler that are depicted in the poem within the framework of governance in Islam. &nbsp;The paper finds that, by referring to a famous love story between Husraw and Shirin, Qutb was able to address the needs of his era and society, and created an original composition through an intense creative processing of literary material that was available to him. Given the fact that the Golden Horde is among the less studied periods of Islamic history and intellectual thought, this paper is expected to contribute to the field positively.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em>: </strong>Golden Horde, Governance in Islam, Husraw and Shirin, Justice, Qutb, The concept of ideal ruler in Islam, Statehood, Turkic literature, Women as rulers</p> Elmira Akhmetova Gumar F. Dautov Alfira S. Hajrullina Copyright (c) 2022 Elmira Akhmetova, Gumar Dautov, Alfira Hajrullina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 12 2 01 13 10.32350/jitc.122.01 Where Technology Meets Islam: Towards an Islamic Perspective on Technology https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2533 <p style="text-align: justify;">Technology is a pervasive phenomenon in our surroundings. Today, we rarely experience the natural world and our relationship with the world is most often technologically mediated. The long-standing view in the Islamic world toward technology seems to be taking it as an innocent tool which carries only instrumental value. If so, there would not arise any moral question concerning technology per se. Rather, everything would concern with the way it is used by individuals. This <em>instrumentalist</em> approach, however, is notoriously premature. Technology inherently is value-laden and accordingly calls for philosophical as well as moral evaluation. In this article, we will suggest a context for assessing technology from an Islamic point of view. To that purpose, we will unpack Heidegger’s account of technology to bring into relief an enduring problem associated with modern technology, the problem of <em>Gestell</em>. Our source of inspiration to accommodate Heidegger’s concern is the work of Tabātabā’i, the contemporary Muslim thinker, on theory of <em>iʿtibārīat</em> and also his contribution to the virtue ethics. In the end&nbsp;we will find that, according to Tabātabā’i, the problem of technology is rooted in deviation from the golden mean, in the wake of secularization of the world in the modern era.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: Heidegger, Islamic Technology, Iʿtibārīat, Tabātabā'i, Technology, Virtue Ethics</p> Ehsan Arzroomchilar Maryam Olamaiekopaie Copyright (c) 2022 Ehsan Arzroomchilar, Maryam Olamaiekopaie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 12 2 14 27 10.32350/jitc.122.02 A Critical Analysis of the Claim that Absolute Juristic Interpretation (Ijtihād) Has Ended https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2593 <p style="text-align: justify;">This article critically analyzes the dominant opinion prevailing regarding the foundation of Islamic jurisprudence (<em>uṣūl al-fiqh</em>) which states that absolute independent juristic interpretation (<em>al-ijtihād al-muṭlaq al-mustaqill</em>) is no longer possible. Therefore, based on the belief that this level of interpretation requires the creation of a unique method for deriving legal rules (<em>istinbāṭ</em>), a method that arguably ended with the founders of the primary schools of law. This research inspects a new interpretive method which was not developed by late scholars. Consequently, the article uses legal reasoning as an interpretive method to criticize the previous opinions regarding Islamic Jurisprudence by using both textual and rational evidence. For instance, the preservation of religion and the continued renewal of convenient sources requires scholars to reach the highest level of interpretation (ijtihād). In addition, a connection to the legal reality of the time and rulings were necessary to adapt them, an issue dependent upon direct derivation of rulings from religious texts or the freedom to implement secondary forms of evidence. Therefore, this research concludes that the founders of the traditional law schools did not develop their foundations independently. Instead, they did so through constructive investigation and analysis. Their interpretations conformed to the Prophet’s (<em>SAW</em>) Companions. Such a process continued and future independent scholars followed their footsteps. In addition, the legal reality in every age saw the rise of individuals who positively impacted the renewal of the foundations of jurisprudence by interpreting Prophetic <em>hadīth</em> which required advanced interpretative skills.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Absolute <em>Ijtihād</em>, <em>Ijtihād,</em>&nbsp;Islamic law, Independent juristic reasoning, <em>Madhāhib</em></p> Moath Alnaief Kotb Rissouni Copyright (c) 2022 Moath Alnaief, kotb Rissouni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 12 2 28 40 10.32350/jitc.122.03 Friday Sermons in Singapore: The Voice of Authorities toward Building State-Centric Muslim Identity https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2510 <p style="text-align: justify;">This article examines to what extent Friday sermons are used by the government of Singapore through its statutory board, <em>Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura</em> (MUIS) or Islamic Religious Council of Singapore, to enact government policies and communicate it’s approved Islamic interpretations. A content analysis methodology was employed to discursively elucidate Friday sermon texts delivered in 2019 in Singapore, which were all taken from MUIS websites. Findings showed that the religious authority modulated religious discourses and utilized the Friday sermons as an avenue of forging state-centric Muslim identity and modulating interpretations of Islam. This content analysis study stresses the importance of how Friday sermons could be used to construct Muslim identity in secular state policies and shape a socio-political harmony between state vision and development and Muslim minorities. This paper implies that the current entanglements of religion and development are closely intertwined in which religion and state-building initiatives led by the government reciprocally interact and mutually benefit.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Authority, Friday Sermon, Islam, Muslim Identity, Singapore</p> Helmiati Copyright (c) 2022 Helmiati https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 12 2 41 57 10.32350/jitc.122.04 Implementing and Interpreting Fazlur Rahman's Islamic Moderation Concept in the Indonesian Context https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2407 <p style="text-align: justify;">Although, Indonesians are known as the most ‘tolerant’ nation &nbsp;&nbsp;but the radical turn of events over the period of time has transformed their religious tolerance into extremism. &nbsp;Therefore, several movements have started to alter Indonesia's Islamic model into a one more compatible with that of the Arab world. These are not social conflicts but could become reason of provoking different social conflicts. It has been claimed that these social conflicts occur because Indonesia has followed westernization, Christianization, secularism, liberalism and the unfair attitude of the West in the Middle East conflicts, especially between Palestine and Israel. The majority of Indonesians are Muslims therefore, democratization is studied thoroughly using a religious moderation theory in the context of Islamic religion and religious doctrine This study aims to discuss Fazlur Rahman's double movement hermeneutics as an Islamic moderation concept by using &nbsp;&nbsp;Qur’anic references. This moderation concept could be applied to the Indonesian context. A bibliographical survey and an interpretive method have been employed to reveal a specific nature of religious moderation, which prohibits Muslims from taking an extreme stance about religious provisions. Moderation is not limited to religious attitudes but includes all aspects of life. &nbsp;Therefore, this study implicates that if Fazlur Rehman’s Islamic moderation concepts are practiced comprehensively in Indonesia then social harmony would prevail as a social phenomenon.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>Islamic doctrine, Religious moderation,<em> T</em><em>afsir</em>, Verse of the Qur’ān</p> Ahmad Hasan Ridwan Mohammad Taufiq Rahman Yusuf Budiana Irfan Safrudin Muhammad Andi Septiadi Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad Hasan Ridwan, Mohammad Taufiq Rahman, Yusuf Budiana, H. Irfan Safrudin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 12 2 58 73 10.32350/jitc.122.05 Exploring the Main Similarities Between the Concept of Divinity and Eastern Beliefs among Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2365 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study will seek to attempt to discuss the concept of divinity in eastern beliefs, especially (Taoism, Hinduism, etc.), and then identify the similarities between the latter beliefs in relation to this concept. The goal of this paper is to find out the reasons why Eastern beliefs strayed from the worship of God and how they developed their concept of divinity. This research is very important because it provides information on the prevailing beliefs in India and China, which believe in the plurality of deities, the worship of ancestors from fathers and grandfathers, the sanctification of the forces of nature, and the practice of spiritual worship to reach the stage of union from God as they believe. This study focuses on answering the questions: Is the concept of divinity unified in eastern beliefs? The study used both the inductive and the deductive method by relying on the mother of books of eastern beliefs like the book of Tao. The most important findings of the study are that the philosophical and moral eastern religions prevailing in India and China are not based on belief in the monotheism of divinity. The study also showed that Eastern beliefs meet in a plurality the gods, and gradually and passed through stages in the search for the god that meets their needs, they worshiped the forces of nature, totem, man, and others, and practiced magic, sorcery, astrology, and other manifestations of polytheism.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Key words:</em></strong> Buddhism, Confucius, Divinity<strong>, </strong>Eastern beliefs, Hindus</p> Eman Mohammed Al-Ghananeem Copyright (c) 2022 eman mohammed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 12 2 74 87 10.32350/jitc.122.06 Is there a Sexism in Islamic Leadership? The Case of the Sultanahs in Lanao Sultanate, Philippines https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2124 <p style="text-align: justify;">Scarce knowledge on the status of Muslim women in Islam causes misinterpretations and distasteful opinions regarding it in Islamic leadership, and predominantly on the roles of women in societies. This contributes negatively in a direct way to the plight of Muslim women in many Muslim countries in the Middle East, West, Asia, Africa, and elsewhere. This is a serious social problem that requires immediate attention and scholarly remedies so that the core of this social problem will be solved, and its damaging effects to the Muslim women shall be addressed. Women in Islamic leadership, are often misunderstood by the Westerners; and more specifically by the Muslim communities themselves due to scarce knowledge on the nature of leadership in Islam. Broadly speaking in the Islamic world; and particularly in the Muslim localities of Philippines, as a case study, the Mёranao women had a special role in the traditional leadership in Lanao Sultanate. Both the sultan and sultanah (<em>bai-a-labi</em>) form a mutual leadership that is unique from the leadership of the rest of the Muslim world and societies. This study examines whether or not there is a sexism in Islamic leadership under the lens of the said sultanate. This research explores the participation of Muslim women in the Lanao Sultanate leadership, and the selection process in choosing a sultanah, her functions and personal qualities. This scholarly endeavor navigates the Islamic perspectives on Muslim women in leadership.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Islamic leadership, Lanao Sultanate, Mёranao women, qualifications, functions&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Sohayle Hadji Abdul Racman Copyright (c) 2022 Sohayle Hadji Abdul Racman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 12 2 88 102 10.32350/jitc.122.07 A Need of Sharī ‘ah Compliant Model of 3D Bioprinting https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1513 <p style="text-align: justify;">One of the credible inventions is 3D Bioprinting or organ printing which uses layer by layer fabrication manner and is an emerging and developing technology offered by the research industry and can help the humanity in certain areas of life e.g., health, food, etc. The technology has been found beneficial in wide spectrum within the medical industry in fighting the shortage of organ and tissues donations. It is also helpful for the pharmaceuticals for determining effectiveness of new drugs and the food industry players to develop new type of edible meat for humans’ consumption. However, behind all these benefits, there are unresolved issues that need be discussed critically and addressed properly within the ethics, law and orders of Islamic worldview. This study aims to indentify the Sharī‘ah related issues raised consequent upon the invention of 3D bioprinting. The study uses data collection from scholars’ writings, academic journals, and Islamic fatwa related to bioethics. The data are analysed thematically. The results show that there is a loophole in bioethics research on Sharī‘ah compliant guidelines for the Muslims users with regards to bioprinting usage. It is suggested for the experts to do thorough research on Sharī‘ah compliant guidelines of bioprinting to be the benchmark guideline for authorities such as JAKIM in Malaysia and other authorities such as the Ministry of Health in treating the Muslim patients.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong></em>3D Bioprinting, Ethical and Legal Issues, Organ Printing, <em>Sharī ‘ah</em> Compliance.</p> Nurmunirah Ramli Mohammad Naqib Hamdan Mohd Anuar Ramli Saiful Izwan Abd Razak Hussein ‘Azeemi Abdullah Thaidi Mohd Farhan Md Ariffin Norhidayu Muhamad Zain Copyright (c) 2022 Nurmunirah Ramli, Mohammad Naqib Hamdan, Mohd Anuar Ramli, Saiful Izwan Abd Razak, Hussein ‘Azeemi Abdullah Thaidi, Mohd Farhan Md Ariffin, Norhidayu Muhamad Zain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 12 2 103 115 10.32350/jitc.122.08 Asserting Religiosity in Indonesian Muslim Urban Communities through Islamic Education: An Experience of Indonesia https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1717 <p style="text-align: justify;">Urban Muslim communities in Indonesia are growing in different cities. Not only as a forum where social interaction is established among Muslims, but also this urban Muslim community is transformed into a social institution, which is unique, and influencing the social order. There are various forms of urban communities, and one of them appears in the form of a<em> majelis taklim </em>(<em>taklim</em>-assembly): a community, which was established independently, and non-formally by the Muslim community. In its development, the <em>majelis taklim </em>was transformed into a non-formal educational institution that can increase the religious knowledge of the pilgrims, or participants who joined the <em>majelis</em> <em>taklim.</em> In this regard, the problem that arises is whether the existence of the <em>majelis taklim </em>and its Islamic learning process, automatically increase the religiosity of participants or pilgrims. In this case, this study aims to assert religiosity in Indonesian urban communities, through the influence of <em>majelis taklim</em> Islamic learning motivation and satisfaction on religious cognition and attitude. The Stata 16.0 multivariate regression analysis was also used to select 348 participants from 24 provinces. In this process, both the motivation and satisfaction of Islamic learning dynamically contributed to two religiosity dimensions of the urban communities (<em>Majelis Taklim</em>), namely cognitive and attitude. The results showed that religiosity was a complex concept not increased by just one dimension of a set of variables. However, it needs to be systematically improved through multiple variables.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong>Gender,&nbsp;Learning motivation, Learning satisfaction, Muslim urban communities; <em>Majelis Taklim</em>, Religiosity, Urban communities</p> Deri Wanto Jalwis Ahmad Jamin Ramsah Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Deri Wanto, Jalwis, Ahmad Jamin; Ramsah Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-11 2022-10-11 12 2 116 135 10.32350/jitc.122.09 Congruency Between Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory and the Principles of Maqasid Sharī‘ah https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2774 <p style="text-align: justify;">Maslow's initial five levelled theory of ‘hierarchy of needs is one of the most popular theories on motivation albeit its many criticisms particularly related to the lack of scientific rigour to narrow cultural perspectives. However, it’s propensity towards the self has called for a review of the theory with Maslow himself finally proposing a sixth level (self-transcendence) at the new apex of the pyramid above ‘self-actualization’ and the other four levels of needs. However, the original five level of needs is still preferred by most researchers globally. Human motivation and needs have long been discussed in ‘Islamic scholarship’ for centuries, but it is rarely represented in ‘Western academic’ discussions of ‘Islamic motivation’. Unfortunately, some studies tend to explore the integration of Islamic theories and Western ideologies by incorporating the <em>Maqasid Sharī‘ah</em> with ‘Maslow’s hierarchy of needs’. Such approach tends to ignore the distinct influence of Islam on behaviour and self-perception as Islam delivers a unique ‘spiritual perspective’ on the relationship between motivators and the self that most ‘Western models’ do not provide. The authors believe that the <em>Maqasid Sharī‘ah</em> is constantly revolving in a dynamic state that changes continuously and should not be portrayed as static in nature. Thus, a framework with the <em>Maqasid Sharī‘ah</em> as overarching contextual factor that constantly influences Maslow's five levels of needs is proposed accordingly.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> contextual factors, integration, Islamic motivation, Maslow’s-hierarchy-of-needs-theory, <em>Maqasid Sharī‘ah</em></p> Amran Rasli Salman Memon Mohd Fauzi Abu-Hussin Copyright (c) 2022 Amran Rasli, Salman Memon, Mohd Fauzi Abu-Hussin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 12 2 136 150 10.32350/jitc.122.10 Political Philosophy of Illumination: An Analysis of Political Dimensions in Suhrawardi's Thought https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2595 <p style="text-align: justify;">Suhrawardi is a renowned philosopher famous for his thoughts on the philosophy of Illumination. His thoughts are contained in his mangnum opus, <em>T</em><em>he Wisdom&nbsp; of Al-Isryq (Hikmat Al-Isryq)</em>. This study aims to reveal the prominent aspect of various political dimensions in his work, whose primordial focus was on the aspects of the political system and the concept of power. The political system and the concept of power were then characterized as a political philosophy of Illumination. For this reason, this study not only uses a qualitative method with factual historical study techniques regarding figures but also uses an analytical approach to the theory of sociology of knowledge by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Lucmann and the theory of socio-political philosophy of al-Farabi's emanation. The sociology of knowledge is used to analyze the social dimensions involved in the formation of Suhrawardi's thoughts. Meanwhile, the socio-political philosophy of emanation is used to characterize the system and the concept of political power contained in <em>t</em><em>he Wisdom of al-Isryq</em>. The study concludes that the political system contained in the Illumination philosophy is divine, theocratic, and based on the concept of power in the form of self-control.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Hikmat al-Isryq</em>, Illumination Political Philosophy, Suhrawardi, Reality, Sociology of Knowledge</p> Reza Adeputra Tohis Copyright (c) 2022 Reza Adeputra Tohis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 12 2 151 163 10.32350/jitc.122.11 The Islamic Perspective on the Effect of Religiosity, Anxiety and Belief regarding COVID-19 on Undisclosed Status of COVID-19 in the Muslim Youth https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2395 <p style="text-align: justify;">Many people who suffered from COVID-19 symptoms have been diagnosed as positive for COVID-19. However, most of them did not want to reveal their COVID-19 status. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of religiosity, anxiety, and COVID-19 belief on the undeclared status of COVID-19 in Muslim youth. This study uses a cross-sectional design; researchers will conduct research on Muslim youth in North Sumatra Province, with the main criteria suspecting COVID-19. Researchers will provide informed consent to Muslim youth parents (in case there are Muslim youths aged 16-17 years) for seeking formal permission to participate in this research process. In this study, data was analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. This research was conducted on 826 Muslim youth who are willing to be respondents and suspect COVID-19 with symptom or had a contact with the closest family member who is diagnosed positive for COVID-19. There was no influence between social economics in COVID-19 (p=0.709; 95% CI), religiosity (p=0.88; 95% CI), anxiety (p=0.147; 95% CI) on undisclosed status of COVID-19. The results of this study indicate that youth who do not believe in COVID-19 have 2,351 risk (1.27-432; 95% CI) on undisclosed status of COVID-19 compared to youth who believe in COVID-19 experience on undisclosed status of COVID-19. To reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission caused by Undisclosed Status COVID-19, the Indonesian government must increase Muslim youth confidence in COVID-19.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Anxiety, Belief of COVID-19, Islamic Perspective, Muslim Youth, Religiosity, Undisclosed Status.</p> Nurhayati Abu Rokhmad Tri bayu Purnama Putra Apriadi Siregar Reni Ria Armayani Hasibuan Fitri Hayati Copyright (c) 2022 Nurhayati , Abu Rokhmad , Tri bayu Purnama, Putra Apriadi Siregar, Reni Ria Armayani Hasibuan, Fitri Hayati https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 12 2 164 178 10.32350/jitc.122.12 Educational Tradition of Ijāzah in Islamic History with Reference to Persian Milieu https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2450 <p style="text-align: justify;">From the earliest periods of Islamic history and civilization, the educational system was originally religious in nature. It began with the mosque as its centre, from which other educational institutions such as the <em>maktab</em>, the <em>bayt al-hikmah</em>, the <em>majālis</em>, the <em>dār al-‛ulūm</em>, and the <em>madāris</em> gradually developed. In addition, from the vast fields of medicine, astronomy and the devotional sciences emerges the advent of hospitals, observatories, and the <em>zāwiyah</em> within Sūfī fraternities. In the aforementioned educational institutions, students were trained in different fields of Islamic studies that systematically includes both transmitted and applied subjects by their professors. Moreover, they were able to select their professors as they wished. When they had completed their studies, according to a certain level of proficiency to the professor’s satisfaction, they would traditionally be accorded a ‘licence to teach’, a so-called <em>ijāzah</em>, either by one professor or by more than one. It is this <em>ijāzah</em> tradition which has a long history in Muslim education, which deserved special attention where the Persian milieu were part of this tradition right from the beginning; and in some places until the present day. <em>I</em><em>jāzah</em> tradition played a very significant role not only among Muslims but also among other religions; therefore, this article studies this unique educational tradition with special reference to Persian milieu.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Education, <em>ijāzah</em>, Islamic civilization, Islamic history, Persian milieu</p> Mesut Idriz Copyright (c) 2022 Mesut Idriz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 179 195 10.32350/jitc.122.13 Al-Ghazali's Concept of Happiness in The Alchemy of Happiness https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2925 <p style="text-align: justify;">Al-Ghazali's book entitled <em>The Alchemy of Happiness</em> describes happiness. It often becomes a reference of behavior of mysticism and psychology, especially Islamic psychology. However, there are no studies that specifically examine this book. This study analyzes al-Ghazali's concept of happiness in <em>The Alchemy of Happiness</em>. The research data sources consist of literature having <em>The Alchemy of Happiness</em> as their main references. The researcher uses the content analysis method to analyze the data. The research results show that (1) Al-Ghazali's concept of happiness refers to the Qur'an, Hadīths, Islamic philosophy, Sufism teachings, and al-Farabi’s leadership concept. (2) Al-Ghazali's principle of happiness is twofold: that happiness must be pursued and tiered. Al-Ghazali's concept of happiness consists of four aspects: appetence, reason, heart, and love for Allah. (3) Furthermore, the method of achieving happiness has three stages, (1) recognizing the nature and character of the self, (2) placing the heart as the leader of the self, and (3) contemplation of God. Al-Ghazali's concept of happiness has several advantages, namely use many Quarnic references; does not eliminate the potential for lust; and does not teach fatalism. In fact, he motivates people to pursue their happiness.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>:</em> Al-Ghazali, <em>Alchemy of Happiness</em>, Concept of happiness, aspects of happiness, Methods of achieving happiness</p> Achmad Khudori Soleh Copyright (c) 2022 Achmad Khudori Soleh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 196 211 10.32350/jitc.122.14 Islam and Nationalism in the Thought of Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2913 <p style="text-align: justify;">The dynamic of nationalism’s theoretical position has facilitated the unfolding complexities throughout history; and it still triggers an intellectual debate among the contemporary scholars. Carved out as a formidable socio-political force, nationalism today stands out as a substantial brand of resistance that defies all odds. This study has employed the qualitative method of analysis to build a framework to explore the ideas and thoughts of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani pertaining to the concepts of Islam and nationalism. Furthermore, this study argued that Afghani’s conception of Islam and nationalism was an effective tool in balancing the principles of modernity. In similar vein, Afghani’s core ideas and its underlying values suggested some different trajectories of fundamental synthesis of the nationalism and Islam. To elucidate further, Islam is viewed as a dominant force that perpetuated the development of Afghani’s comprehension on nationalism. This study culminates that Afghani’s concept of nationalism is the fundamental source of social unity that has consolidated the backbone of Islamic movement within the framework of Pan-Islamism by emphasizing the concept of unity and <em>ummah</em>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Nationalism, Pan-Islamism, Social-unity, Western thought</p> Ariff Aizuddin Azlan Copyright (c) 2022 Ariff Aizuddin Azlan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 212 224 10.32350/jitc.122.15 Determination of Islamic Month Start by Moonsighting Australia (Case Study: 1 Dzulhijah 1441) https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2792 <p style="text-align: justify;">The determination of the Islamic calendar is paramount in Islam because it strongly relates to worship, like <em>Ramadan</em> fasting, <em>eid-al-fitr</em>, and <em>zakat fitr</em>. Many studies have examined young moon visibility criteria in many Muslim countries, such as Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, and Singapore. However, no study on the initiation of the Islamic month has been conducted in Australia, a Muslim-minority country with middle-eastern immigrants seeking jobs. One of Australia's most trusted organizations to announce the start of Hijri month is <em>Moonsighting Australia</em>. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the determination of the Islamic calendar by <em>Moonsighting Australia </em>organization based on factors such as method, <em>matla</em>, <em>rukyat</em> time, <em>hilāl</em> visibility, and resistors (1 <em>Dzulhijjah </em>1441 H). A descriptive study with a qualitative approach used literature reviews, content analysis, and case studies. Primary data were taken from a decision letter from <em>Moonsighting Australia</em> about the start of <em>Dzulhijjah</em> 1441 H, interviews with the coordinator, and relevant references. The findings showed that <em>Moonsighting Australia</em> applies a <em>rukyat</em> method by the naked eye - without any optical aids and hilāl visibility criteria consideration - every 29<sup>th</sup> of Hijri month. Also, it tunes the concept of <em>matla</em> <em>wilayat al hukmi</em>, where the sighting process and result are implemented throughout Australia’s territory.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>:&nbsp; Australia, <em>Dzulhijjah</em>, <em>Hijri</em>, Islamic Month, Moonsighting.</p> Fatmawati Fatmawati Andi Muhammad Akmal Andi Muh. Akhyar Azwar Azwar Achmad Nasyori Copyright (c) 2022 Fatmawati, Andi Muhammad Akmal, Andi Muh. Akhyar, Azwar, Achmad Nasyori https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 225 241 10.32350/jitc.122.16 The Role of Arabic Calligraphy in Displaying the Aesthetics of Linear Configurations in the Kiswah of Kaaba https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2670 <p style="text-align: justify;">The <em>Kiswah</em> of the <em>Kaaba</em>, in the Saudi era, is adorned with Arabic calligraphy, executed in the complex <em>Thuluth</em> calligraphy. These calligraphic formations are compatible with the aesthetic and spiritual function of the <em>Kiswah </em>of<em> Kaaba</em>. In addition, the contribution of these formations and Arabic calligraphy creates formative elements of a distinctive aesthetic nature that glorifies the <em>kiswah</em> with a special kind of spiritual beauty associated with the writing of Qur’ānic verses. Arabic calligraphy, especially the <em>Thuluth</em> script, is one of the essential Arabic fonts that express the aesthetic values of Arabic calligraphy in the covering of the <em>Kaaba</em>. Therefore, this study aims to reveal the role of Arabic calligraphy and the characteristics of the <em>Thuluth</em> line, which have enhanced in highlighting the aesthetics of the linear formations of the <em>Kiswah.</em> The study also aims to discuss the aesthetic features and patterns that characterize the linear formations. The method used in this study is the content analysis method, bearing in mind that the primary tool used is inference based on observation. The study concluded that the <em>Thuluth</em> font possesses several aesthetic and technical characteristics compared to the rest of the other Arabic fonts. Moreover, these technical characteristics gave this line an evident prominence in decorating and beautifying the covering of the <em>Kaaba</em> with the appearance of the single letter in several bodies through the morphological diversity of the character drawing.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Arabic calligraphy,&nbsp; aesthetics,<em> Kiswah</em> of <em>Kaaba</em>, linear configurations, <em>Thuluth</em> script.</p> Duaa Mohammed Alashari Copyright (c) 2022 Duaa Mohammed Alashari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 242 254 10.32350/jitc.122.17 Islamic Principles to Combat Radicalization in Academia: An Exploratory Study in Pakistani Context https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2965 <p style="text-align: justify;">Pakistan’s geopolitical location and events like the Afghan <em>Jihād</em>, 9/11, and the War on Terror have adversely affected our social, religious, and geopolitical realms. Numerous perpetrators are engaged in violent extremism due to their exclusive interpretations of Islamic injunctions, which mainly deviate from the basic Islamic principles. These developments in our region have given rise to the phenomenon of radicalization in the socio-religious and political spheres. Unfortunately, this radicalization has infused the higher education sector and threatened Pakistan’s security and safety. According to this study, ‘radicalization’ is a process in which people or groups adopt extreme social, religious, and political views to discredit or reject others’ coexisting and contemporary ideologies. The status quo, the delicate law &amp; order situation, and developing trends and ideas at the societal level further lead to polarization and division. This paper aims to identify numerous adherents’of radicalization in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). It also explains the central concept of theological radicalization and how genuine Islamic principles combat these misconceptions. Analytical and exploratory research methodology has been adopted for this study. This research concludes that by adopting the Islamic principles of<em> Waṣatīyyah </em>(Moderation and the Middle Path) and ‘<em>Ilm-al-Eḥsān</em> (to do beautiful things or Excellence) one could lead a successful life as ordained by Allah. A reversal of the rise of radicalism and extremism is possible with the help of moderates and reformers in society and academia to incorporate Islamic socio-religious norms and values. This paper recommends that academia and society must adopt moderation, diversity, and pluralism grounded in Islamic teaching to curb radicalism.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Combating radicalization, Islamic principles, Pakistani academia, Religious modesty</p> Samina Batool Shah Riaz Ahmad Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Riaz Ahmad Saeed, Ms. Samina Batool Shah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 255 270 10.32350/jitc.122.18 The Aurat March (2018-2022) in the Context of Gendered-Islamophobia: A Case of Muslim Women’s Identity in Pakistan https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2511 <p style="text-align: justify;">The role and identity of Muslim women around the world is one of the crucial issues in the current era. Women rights’ activists and other contributors seek to highlight women issues through their work and marches. The present research explores that how these marches are contributing hugely in presenting the image of women in any country to the world. The researcher addresses the cultural and religious differences in terms of gendered Islamophobia and the impact of <em>Aurat March</em> while constructing or contesting the women identity in Pakistani society. Through an analysis of <em>Aurat March</em>, researcher highlights the ways in which the biased representation of Muslim women lives can be either limiting or encouraging. The impact of these events can be reason of rise in negative attitudes and scattered stereotypes, or it might initiate peaceful dialogues and affective measures. The research also analyzes that how a minor negligence can be an additional certificate in the world of Islamophobia and an increase in international narratives against Muslims, Islam, and Pakistani society. The research paper seeks to argue how <em>Aurat March</em>, influenced by secular modern trends transmit Islamophobic stereotypes towards Islam: Muslim women, in general, and Pakistan in specific context. The paper will conclude by analyzing the important insights to counter the gendered Islamophobia in the lives of Muslim women while limiting themselves into gender, culture, and religion.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Aurat March</em>, gender discourses, Islamophobia, Muslim women, Pakistan</p> Syeda Mehmoona Khushbakht Copyright (c) 2022 Syeda Mehmoona Khushbakht https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 271 285 10.32350/jitc.122.19 A Study of Relativistic Theory of Ethics in the Light of Islamic Theory of Morality https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/1516 <p style="text-align: justify;">Every civilization has a system of ethics that defines their values and morality. The basic concepts of "Good" and "Evil" are also derived from that system. This system of ethics gains its inspiration from the world view of that particular civilization. Islam, like all other religions, also give a complete moral code for its believers. Qur’ān and the <em>Sunnah</em> here is the only criterion for determining the basic principles of the Ethics of Islam and hence morality in Islam is objective as well as absolute. In the post-modern world however, the morality and value system that got endorsed by Postmodernist thinkers is relative and subjective instead of absolute and objective. Morality here is largely considered as relative as well as subjective and hence vary with change in time and space. It can also undergo through evolution and no act or concept can be judged here on some absolute criterion. This “Relativism” and “Subjectivism” potentially challenge all the traditional schools of ethics. This paper would study whether this relativistic theory of ethics have any compatibility with Islamic fundamentals regarding ethics. This research paper is based on descriptive method along with primordial focus on Moral Relativism.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Epistemology, Islamic value system, Meta-narratives, Moral relativism, Postmodernism, pluralism</p> Muhammad Awais Shaukat Tahira Basharat Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Awais Shaukat, Tahira Basharat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 286 298 10.32350/jitc.122.20 Tunisian Political Climate from Aristocracy to Democracy and Presidential Coup: An Emerging Challenge to the Islamic Movements https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/JITC/article/view/2766 <p style="text-align: justify;">The popular uprising brought forth change in Tunisian presidential palace during 2011 as it entered a state of liminality while becoming a consolidated democracy from authoritarianism. However, after a decade of democratic transition, only the democratic success story of the Arab Spring is in danger after the decree of Tunisian President. This article aims to highlight that by using <em>Article 80</em> of the constitution, President has seized more power; and it narrates how it contradicts the constitution and negatively impact on political scenario. Furthermore, this study provides an analysis that how certain regional countries are trying to jeopardize the democratic system. Thus, the Islamic movement of Tunisia has been possessing a lion share on Country’s political arena and is considered as the vanguard of Islamic identity and democratic process since 2011 revolution. Finally, it concludes that amid a lenient policy of Rashid Al-Ghannouchi, the founder of the Movement and speaker of the Parliament, towards Islamic doctrine in Tunisian political arena, coup from Tunisian president. Leadership of <em>Al-Nahdah</em> again playing a vital role to stable political climate through dialogue, but it seems that the situation is still in danger. In this article, the primary and secondary data has been analyzed by using Discourse analysis method with its approach of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Authoritarianism, Constitutional imploration, Democracy, <em>Ennahda</em>, islamic movement, Political crises, Presidential coup, Tunisia</p> Raja Umair Hafiz Sajid Iqbal Shaikh Faryal Umbreen Copyright (c) 2022 Raja Umair, Hafiz Sajid Iqbal Shaikh, Faryal Umbreen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 12 2 299 309 10.32350/jitc.122.21