Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) is a peer-reviewed, bi-annual HEC recognized journal. JITC presents a trailblazing platform to Islamic scholars and social scientists for the publication of their research articles.</p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.&nbsp;</a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> [email protected] (Humaira Ahmad) [email protected] (Asma Amanatullah) Wed, 06 Dec 2023 04:38:45 +0000 OJS 60 Modern Salafism in Bint al-Shāṭiʾ’s Journey to the Ḥijāz <p style="text-align: justify;">In 1972, the Egyptian literary scholar and Islamic thinker, ʿᾹʾisha ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (known by the epithet Bint al-Shāṭiʾ), published a highly informative account of her pilgrimage journeys, ʿUmra and Ḥajj, respectively, under the title, <em>Arḍ al-muʿjizāt: riḥla fī jazīrat al- ʿArab</em> (Land of Miracles: Journey in the Arabian Peninsula, 1951 and 1972). The article argues that Bint al-Shāṭiʾ’s pilgrimage account should be read in light of the political and economic changes that the Arab and Islamic world was undergoing at that time. Western Imperialism, and the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and its aftermath, gave more impetus to Islamic revivalism, and Bint al-Shāṭiʾ was one of its proponents. Her <em>oeuvre</em> on Islam and anti-Zionism attests to her revivalist project. As a Salafist thinker well versed in history, Bint al-Shāṭiʾ advocates a return to the original Islam. Only through that return to the Qur’ān and Sunna and strong devotion to the <em>umma</em> can Muslims regain their strength and defeat the State of Israel. Bint al-Shāṭiʾ uses the communal aspect of pilgrimage to readdress the concept of <em>Jihᾱd</em> that should not only be confined to Ḥajj and ʿUmra, but equally performed against social and political injustices, such as the marginalization of women and the Israeli aggression against Palestinians. The article thus contends that Bint al-Shāṭiʾ’s pilgrimage narrative is a key component of her commitment literature.</p> Boutheina Khaldi Copyright (c) 2023 Boutheina Khaldi Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Concept of Sharī‘a Revisited <p style="text-align: justify;">Sharī‘a is considered as a central concept in Islam. The wide range of Islamic aspects covered by this term has led some scholars to argue that Sharī‘a and Islam have become synonymous terms. The terminological obscurity is further increased by the dual nature of Sharī‘a, where divine and mundane dimensions are both present. Moreover, the implications of this obscurity are observable in the ongoing debates about the changeability of Sharī‘a. Therefore, the current study attempted to demystify how a central concept in Islam, such as Sharī‘a, is so vaguely defined. It also examined different factors that contributed to this vagueness, for instance, terminology, history, and politics. However, the focus of the study remained most importantly on the dual nature of Sharī‘a, stemming from a desideratum for divinity and the inevitability of human agency. This obscurity has practical implications, for instance, the classification of banks' interest as riba (usury). However, a more general implication is the degree of flexibility in Sharī‘a, since changeability is proportional to the degree of divinity. Muslims need to have a clearer idea of what Sharī‘a is, to have substantial relevance in modern times.</p> Ali A Rahim Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Ali A Rahim Ali Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Postmodernism on the Thought of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (IMIs) <p style="text-align: justify;">Postmodernism is a worldview that borrowed its nomenclature from an era after modernism into progressive thought that turned into a reputed idea denouncing the absolute truth, affirming relativism, pluralism, and hermeneutics. The current study attempted to disclose their impact on the thought of Indonesian Muslim intellectuals (IMI). However, the depiction of the idea of postmodernism and its embedded concepts would precede it. The current study was based on a qualitative research design and the data was utilized from the prevailing discourses in mass media, journal articles, books, MA thesis, and PhD dissertation. To analyze the data, descriptive and critical analysis methods were adopted. The research determined the impact of postmodernism on the thought of IMI which can be identified in three major issues namely, in the Qur’ānic studies, in gender equality, and in religious pluralism. In a number of articles, books, and theses the IMIs have applied the postmodern hermeneutic approach to Qur’ānic studies uncritically. Consequently, it can shift or override the science of interpretation in Islam (<em>tafsīr</em>). In gender equality, the influence is even clearer, since the IMIs applied this postmodern doctrine and search justification from the Qur’ān by using hermeneutical approach which brought about discrepancies in legal decisions. The impact of postmodern relativism on religious pluralism is apparent. In this part, the IMI discourses revolve around the validity of all religions, implying the denouncement of absolute truth or the exclusivity of religion, including Islam. In fact, each of the three major issues could be scrutinized further.</p> Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi, Henri Shalahuddin, Harda Armayanto, Mohd Fauzi Hamat Copyright (c) 2023 Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi, Henri Shalahuddin, Harda Armayanto, Mohd Fauzi Hamat Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Islamic Architecture on Residential Structures in the Hausa Community <p style="text-align: justify;">The architectural traditions of Islamic cultures have been influenced by Islamic teachings historically. These teachings include values, such as discretion, modesty, and hospitality. These values work as guiding principles and impact the construction of Muslim houses, arrangement of spaces, and interaction of people with one another. However, the current political and social shifts, together with the ideas departing from Islamic cultural values are rather upsetting for Muslims. Resultantly, some of the architectural styles have emerged that go against the ideals and principles, upheld by Islamic beliefs. The current study, in connection with the influence of Islamic cultural values, attempted to examine the shape, traits, and components of housing, thoroughly. Moreover, it also focused on the interactions between these elements in different Islamic towns with different environmental conditions as well. Two case studies were conducted in the Kano metropolitan region by employing a qualitative methodology. This methodology comprised document analysis and direct observation presented within the context of interpretivist research paradigm. The findings showed that religious beliefs form the basis of regional design, with Islamic civilizations' architectural works deriving their inspiration directly from the Islamic principles. The academics underlined the significance to understand Islamic beliefs and values while taking into account the evolving conditions surrounding the contemporary designs in light of the research findings. This knowledge is essential to properly articulate the local Islamic identity in a way that responds to the demands of contemporary society.</p> Aisha Abdulkarim Aliyu, Alice Sabrina Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 Aisha Abdulkarim Aliyu, Alice Sabrina Ismail Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Artistic Signature's Aesthetic Consistency and Differentiation in Arabic Calligraphy <p style="text-align: justify;">The artistic signature of calligraphers has been regarded as a significant aspect of Arabic calligraphy since its inception. As the art form evolved and acquired an aesthetic dimension, the artistic signature became an integral part of this dimension. The calligrapher failed to include his name on the frames, a practice that has become customary among calligraphers nowadays. This tradition allowed to trace the evolution of Arabic calligraphy and identify certain gaps in the calligraphy composition. Additionally, the inclusion of calligrapher's name contributes to the achievement of visual balance within the calligraphy composition, signifying consistency or formal separation. The current study concentrated to investigate the aesthetics of artistic signature in Arabic calligraphy, comprising of four parts. These parts include the research problem, its significance, objectives, area, and the definition of key terminologies. The current study analyzed a total of 25 samples, out of which 5 were selected for further analysis. The researchers appointed a descriptive approach to examine the sample models thereafter, the implementation of artistic signatures varied across the models, with the utilization of calligraphy,<em>(</em><em>Al-Ijaza, Kufi, Ta'liq, Diwāni</em>, and <em>Raq’a).</em> Alterations in the structure and measurement of certain signature letters facilitated the creation of shorthand, which reduced the spaces within the signature structure and achieved formal closure. Additionally, the placement of signatures was distributed among different locations.</p> Ali A Mohsen, Wissam K Abdul Amir, Amin A. Yassin Al-Nouri Copyright (c) 2023 Ali A Mohsen, Wissam K Abdul Amir, Amin A. Yassin Al-Nouri Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Green Academia: Integrating Islamic Teachings in Education for a Sustainable Future <p style="text-align: justify;">Environmental discourses in the twenty-first century actively engage with religious discourses, consciously attempting to bring religious texts as the centre of attention to suggest viable solutions for countering the current ecological crisis. Islam, too, offers an insight to assert that nature is a creation of Allah and, therefore, a constant reminder of His Will and Glory. Drawing references from the Qur’ān and the Ḥadīth, this paper aims first to establish that Islamic value systems are pro-eco-conservative in principle—I draw from Islamic philosophy, namely, the Unity of Being (<em>Tawhīd</em>), Trusteeship (<em>Khalifa</em>) and Accountability (<em>Akhirah</em>), mentioned in <em>Al-</em>Qur’ān to form the theoretical framework for my study. Secondly, a qualitative analysis of the primary data collected using the Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach. Primary data was collected from unstructured group interviews and observation of the researcher with a sample size of fifty students from Madrasah Education (Kolkata, India) and fifty students of English medium schools in Kolkata, respectively, to assess the participants' attitudes and practices, and how it aligns with the eco-conservative practices by posing open-ended questions. The study aims to ascertain if education systems with a religious background could contribute to developing eco-conservative practices and awareness. The study suggested that considering &nbsp;religious teachings in environmental education can naturally foster eco-ethical practices. This study comprises a particular region, and since it included a small sample size, generalization of the result is not possible. &nbsp;</p> Shahida Copyright (c) 2023 Shahida Shahida Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Renaissance of Islam: A Content Analysis of Muhammad Rashīd Riḍā’s Exegesis <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study aimed to investigate the concepts of Islamic Revival in the light of Rashīd Riḍā’s interpretation. This study was guided by a single research question. The research question focused on the exegesis of the Islamic Renaissance according to the teachings of Rashīd Riḍā. The current study comprised a library research that employed text documents as its data sources. The primary sources of the data included two monumental works by Rashīd Riḍā namely Tafsīr <em>al-Manār</em>and Majallah <em>al-Manār </em>(<em>al-Manār</em>Magazine). In the meantime, pertinent journal articles and scientific books provided the secondary data for the current study. Content analysis was used as an analytical approach. The words, sentences, and paragraphs related to the theme of the current study were examined in depth. Moreover, the study also demonstrated that Rashīd Riḍā’s exegesis of the Islamic Renaissance &nbsp;has five dimensions. Firstly, the emphasis on the purity of Islam; secondly, the prohibition of blind imitation <em>(taqlīd);</em> thirdly, the emphasis on a rational approach to the interpretation of the Qur’ān; fourthly, the emphasis on <em>ijtihād</em>; and fifthly, the incorporation of modern knowledge. This study contributes to the dissemination of valuable insights in order to address the complex problems encountered by Muslim societies and the world as a whole in the modern age.</p> Khairul Hamim, M Masykur Abdillah Copyright (c) 2023 Khairul Hamim, M Masykur Abdillah Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reevaluating the Religio-Political Policies of Aurangzeb Alamgir: A Critical Insight from Indian Historians <p style="text-align: justify;">Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir ruled the Indian Sub-Continent for the best part of five decades. The Mughal Empire flourished under his rule, particularly in the spheres of economy, administration and territorial extension, by maintaining exemplary religio-political harmony, unmatched political stability, and cultural development. He was a devout Sunni Muslim and a disciple of the Naqshbandī order. With such an affiliation, he sought to rule his Empire In accordance with the injunctions of Islam. Resultantly, the Hindus felt deprived of the religious freedom which they had enjoyed during the reigns of his predecessors Akbar (r.1556-1605), Jahangir (r.1605-28), and Shah Jahan (r. 1628-58). After the demise of Alamgir in 1707, the Mughal Empire started declining gradually. Many Indian historians have criticized the policies of Alamgir and attributed them as the primary cause of the gradual disintegration of Mughal rule. This research focuses on three major policies of Aurangzeb, namely, temple destruction, re-imposition of <em>jizya,</em> and dismissal of Hindus from the state services. After content analysis of selected Indian historians who mainly focused on the religious outlook of Aurangzeb, this research has made an attempt to counterbalance the allegations leveled against him by Indian historians. Aurangzeb had nothing to do with his non-Muslim subjects concerning his religious zeal but merely pretended to rule the state administration with the injunctions of Islam, aiming to draw military support from the orthodox Muslims against the Shias and the Marathas with the Deccan. He did not deprive them of state services or religious freedom because of his Islamic approach to governance. . His religious policies are not responsible for the gradual decline of the Mughal Empire. He was not as much of a religious bigot as depicted by the Indian historians.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Athar Zaman, Mujeeb Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Athar Zaman, Mujeeb Ahmad Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Religion and Reason in Contemporary Islamic Ethics: A Comparative Study of Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas and Taha Abderrahmane Thought <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research was based on a comparative study of the views of two prominent Islamic intellectual figures, namely Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas and Taha Abderrahmane regarding the position of reason and religion in contemporary Islamic ethics. As library-based research, the current study applied a comparative and textual analytical method to study the primary sources obtained from al-Attas' and Taha's works as well as supplemented by secondary sources from journals and books that are relevant to the topic of discussion. This study concluded that the difference between them was more obvious than the similarities. Through a philosophical lens of virtue ethics, al-Attas viewed ethics as an endeavor to cultivate and refine one's character and spirit by honing the key virtues, wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice, guided by the practical reasoning informed by the overarching influence of theoretical reason. Meanwhile, Taha rejects virtue ethics because for him to limit human actions to only a few elements of virtue cannot be justified since humans are ethical creatures who produce limitless actions. Through the conception of supported reason, which combines theory, praxis, and living experience, he strives for comprehensive ethics based on Sufi approach. However, they share the same opinion that in ethical decisions, the reason is dependent on religion, which they elaborate on through their respective arguments.</p> Aulia Rakhmat Copyright (c) 2023 Aulia Rakhmat Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Christian-Muslim Relations in the Second Half of 19th Century India in View of Syed Nāṣir-ul-Dīn Muḥammad Abūlmanṣūr Dehlvī (d. 1903) <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study examined the nature of Christian-Muslim relationships in 19th-century India. It is argued that their relationships were largely shaped in the context of the polemical debates that were developed to defend the teachings and tenets of their respective religions. Syed Nāṣir-ul-Dīn Muḥammad Abūlmanṣūr Dehlvī (d. 1903) was a polemical Muslim writer who wrote approximately 25 books in the refutation of Christianity. He also defended the religion of Islam; however, his work remains in oblivion. The primary objective of the current research was to analyse Dehlvī's major works dedicated to refute Christianity and to assess their significance. This research holds importance under two key reasons. Firstly, it sheds light on the nature of Christian-Muslim relationships during the 19th century and secondly, it highlights the significance of Muslim writings about other religions, particularly Christianity, in the modern world. The research concluded that while the polemical technique, due to its confrontational aspect, may no longer be the primary method of religious studies. The texts, however, generated through this approach can still be significant resources for students and academics since they offer opportunities for critical thinking, historical investigation, and a better understanding of intricate relationships that exist between religious traditions. Therefore, polemical writings play a significant role in advancing the academic knowledge in the field of religious studies.</p> Farman Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Farman Ali Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Integration of Ibn Sina’s Universal Language Theory and Neuroscience in the Development of Learning Media <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research attempted to integrate Ibn Sina's universal language theory and neuroscience in the development of learning media. It adopted a qualitative library method, with data collected from literature related to universal language theory, neuroscience, and the development of learning materials of Ibn Sina through manual and digital searches for relevant references. The data collected was analyzed by using content analysis which encompassed the data reduction, presentation, and the synthesis of new and comprehensive conceptual frameworks. The results showed that Ibn Sina’s universal language theory offered valuable insights into the significance of language in communication and cognition. Neuroscience provided an understanding of how the human brain processes information and learns. The concepts associated with Ibn Sina's universal language theory and neuroscience, including elements, such as signs, meaning, and relationship between language and reality, were explored to examine their influence on learning media development. The understanding of the principles of human brain-based learning, based on the results of neuroscience, served as a foundation for effective learning media development. By integrating these attributes, the development of learning materials incorporated the conveyance of information in harmony with universal language comprehension and brain-based learning principles. Therefore, learning material developers and teachers should create instructional methods in accordance with advancements in science and technology.</p> Andi Musthafa Husain, Suyadi Suyadi Copyright (c) 2023 Andi Musthafa Husain, Suyadi Suyadi Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analyzing John H. Hick’s Religious Pluralism and Its Implications from Islamic Ethical Perspectives <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper underscores <em>religious pluralism</em> postulated by John Hick (1922–2012) to (re)solve various perceived conflicts of religious diversity and inter-religious relationships in the modern times. To embark on the religious implications of Hick’s postulation from an Islamic standpoint with an emphasis on the ethical perspectives, this study discusses all the relevant conflicts arising due to the misrepresentation of certain issues in a religious context. Additionally, this research is eloquent as it highlights certain moral principles provided by Islam to address the real and potential conflicts of religious diversity and inter-religious issues without any apologetic view of Islamic core doctrines; this contrasts with Hick’s approach that implies a fundamental revision in the foundational doctrines of Islamic belief system. Therefore, to focus on the doctrinal, theological, and epistemic implications; concerning any attempt by the Muslims to adopt Hick’s view with special attention on Islamic ethics as the better alternative, this research analyzed various Qur’ānic verses. Furthermore, the study uses a qualitative method of interpretive and critical analysis approaches and the relevant Qur’ānic verses and previous studies to originate its sources of data from related research. Moreover, the paper concludes that an ethical approach to religious diversity and interreligious issues and conflicts is more pragmatic and effective based on Islamic perspectives other than Hick’s <em>religious pluralism, </em>which necessarily implies religious relativism, agnosticism, and skepticism that are antithetical to the Islamic worldview.</p> Akeem Olayinka Kazeem , Fatmir Shehu Copyright (c) 2023 Kazeem Akeem Olayinka, Fatmir Shehu Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Islamic Jurisprudential on Traditional Financial Customs and Legal Integration in Indonesia <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research presented an insightful analysis of the dynamic relationship between Islamic Jurisprudence and customary financial practices within the jurisdiction of Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which the broader Indonesian society embraces Sharī‘a-compliant customary practices; subsequently, being acknowledged within the secular legal framework. This exploration was particularly pertinent due to Indonesia's nuanced approach to Islamic law integration, as it neither fully adopted nor entirely dismissed Sharī‘a principles. This study deployed a standard doctrinal approach, which involves a meticulous examination of legislative provisions and a thorough examination of practical cases, involving indigenous financial customs, such as <em>ijon, tebasan, sewa </em>and <em>gadai. </em>By doing so, this research seeks to ascertain whether the influence of Sharī‘a on customary practices can harmoniously coexist within the Indonesian legal system. The findings of this study challenged the traditional notions of legal centralism, emphasizing the importance of integrating local religious traditions into the state legal system. In particular, the study argued that Sharī‘a-endorsed commercial practices can independently occur alongside traditional practices in society, even in the absence of explicit Sharī‘a principles or interest-based restrictions. This study significantly contributed to our understanding of legal pluralism within Indonesian context and introduced a novel approach that acknowledged the interplay between Sharī‘a and Secular law, while fostering social cohesion and legal harmony.</p> Romi Adetio Setiawan Copyright (c) 2023 Romi Adetio Setiawan Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rethinking the Essentiality of Homo Islamicus: Exploring the Fundamental Critiques <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper examines the necessity of homo islamicus perspective in Islamic economics. As such, it is a conceptual paper that emphasizes a critical approach to identify new concepts and critiques regarding homo islamicus. The conceptual approach focuses on theoretical analysis, in which the study aims to investigate the concept of homo islamicus and explain its logical implications. This approach enables the researcher to critique and identify a research gap regarding the concept of homo islamicus. The study highlighted several reasons, which identify that homo islamicus is not essential. Firstly, it was marked that the development of Islamic economics does not rely on the obedience and righteousness of economic actors. Secondly, as homo islamicus holds significant status, it should not be prioritized over other foundational concepts. Lastly, the study foregrounded that although homo islamicus is significant in its current form, it is not necessary to establish the basis for transforming the Islamic economy. Furthermore, it was also observed that it is still required in Islamic economics; thus, homo islamicus should not be the sole concept, excluding other relevant concepts for comparison. Additionally, this study underscores that homo islamicus loses its significance when it is seen as final and absolute; however, it may contradict the ongoing quest for the identity of Islamic economics.</p> Muhammad Sholihin, Catur Sugiyanto, Akhmad Akbar Susamto Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Sholihin, Catur Sugiyanto, Akhmad Akbar Susamto Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Feminine or Patriarchal: Story of Adam and Eve in Urdu Novels by Women Writers <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research attempted to analyze the novels written by eminent women writers in the Urdu language, that is, Bano Qudsia, Jamila Hashmi, and Khadija Mastoor, to understand the usage and interpretation of religious narrative of Adam and Hawwa in their writings [Eve]. The study focused on narrations, such as creating Eve from Adam’s rib and expulsion of Adam and Hawwa from heaven. Jamila Hashmi, Bano Qudsia, and Khadija Mastoor’s notable novels have been included in the current study. The main objective was to ascertain if the symbolic and metaphorical usage and interpretation of creation of Eve in these works, is feminine or otherwise. Moreover, the study also showed that the feminine expression which is called as <em>‘nisaai’ </em>in Urdu, is a myth when seen in connection with the interpretation of religious narration of Adam and Eve’s tale. The theoretical lens of feminist theology was used and critique of Fatema Mernissi and Riffat Hassan was referred to for this purpose. It may be concluded that the understanding of these particular religious’ narratives and their symbolic and metaphorical usage, is inspired by and received from pure patriarchal interpretation of religious texts. Moreover, it has not been challenged by, or seen in the light of any feminist critique of patriarchal interpretations of religious texts, by the woman writers included in this study. Additionally, the presence of pure patriarchal interpretation of other religious symbols was observed while exploring works included in the current study. The patriarchal narrative has not been challenged in any way by the women novelists as far as the religious texts or their usage in their works is concerned.</p> Ambreen Salahuddin Copyright (c) 2023 Ambreen Salahuddin Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rahmah among Muslim Leaders: The Case of Waqf Institutions <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to expand the existing research on empathic leadership and its impact on management effectiveness within Waqf institutions in Malaysia. This aim was achieved by including the concept of <em>Rahmah</em> in the analysis. Empathetic leadership exemplifies the manner in which the behaviours and emotional states of followers are impacted by the leaders' comprehension and provision of support. Data analysis was conducted via the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Well-structured interviews were used to collect the opinions of the individuals entrusted with managing Waqf properties. Given the uneven distribution of Waqf employees across Malaysia, the study population was stratified into clusters based on the states. This practice ensured the suitability and sufficiency of the sample size obtained from each cluster, specifically referring to the states. The results indicated that Islamic leaders in Waqf organisations exhibit a notable degree of empathy, as seen by the mean score of 5.23 and standard deviation of 1.09, in the management of their personnel.&nbsp; Based on the findings, this study posits that the concept of <em>Rahmah</em> may have broader applicability outside the third government sector (TSO), encompassing many organisational practices. It also argues that the presence of a strong leader is crucial for the development of any organisation and is not limited to TSOs, such as Waqf institutions.</p> Sharfizie Mohd Sharip, Dalila Daud, Nor’ Azurah Md Kamdari, Siti Sara Ibrahim, Marinah Awang, Ramlee Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 Sharfizie Mohd Sharip, Dalila Daud, Nor’ Azurah Md Kamdari, Siti Sara Ibrahim, Marinah Awang, Ramlee Ismail Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rethinking Freedom of Expression in Light of the Emerging Sacredness of Social, Cultural, and Political Values <p style="text-align: justify;">Religion has always been considered to be sacred, perhaps the most sacred of all, and maybe the only sacred occurrence that exists among other ‘well-respected phenomena’ in many societies. In recent times, "the religion" has experienced a decline in influence, and its sacredness is not as pronounced as it once was, particularly in Western countries. Though, the phenomenon of religion is getting weaker with the passage of time, it does not mean that the element ‘sacred’ is also getting weaker. Every society has its own values which are sacred for that particular society. The notion of blasphemy is linked to the sacred, and since religion was once the utmost sacred entity, it was closely tied to religious beliefs. After the emergence of the nation-state in the 20th century, different political ideologies and cultural aspects of life became more influential and somehow were considered sacred. Thus, the idea of blasphemy cannot only be associated with religion, especially when new phenomena have replaced religion as the most sacred subject in society. The right of freedom of expression is closely associated with the act of blasphemy. This right is not absolute in nature. There are certain limits and boundaries which vary from society to society and should be kept in mind while exercising this right.&nbsp; The right of freedom of expression is meant to have a positive impact rather than ridiculing the established sacred.</p> Kashif Imran Zadi, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Waqas Gujjar, Muhammad Khabeer Khalid Copyright (c) 2023 Kashif Imran Zadi, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Waqas Gujjar, Muhammad Khabeer Khalid Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 From Belief to Business: Cultivating the Impact of Intrinsic Religiosity on Entrepreneurial Intentions via Meaning in Life and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy <p style="text-align: justify;">This study is an attempt to explore the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions based on intrinsic religiosity. Religion plays a vital role in the lives of its followers, and it tends to develop a business mindset among individuals. There is a dearth of studies on the impact of religion on entrepreneurial intentions, especially in the Pakistani context. The study's novelty is to explore this less-discussed relation between religion and inclination towards business by using social cognitive theory. This relationship is mediated by two variables, which are meaning in life and self-efficacy. Both mediators are antecedents of intrinsic religiosity and precedents of entrepreneurial intentions. For this purpose, the data was collected from 410 postgraduate students of three Pakistani universities, who are studying in their final semesters. Furthermore, this study employed WarpPLS to analyze the data. The findings of the paper revealed that religion plays an important role in developing entrepreneurial intentions. This research has theoretical contributions as well as managerial implications. Theoretically, it contributes to the literature of social cognitive theory and adds knowledge to the religious dimension. Practically, it guides government and institutional managers that for the development of entrepreneurial intentions among individuals they can also consider the religious curriculum and practices for developing their business.</p> Sarfraz Zaman, Neelam Bano, Muhammad Zia Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 Sarfraz Zaman, Neelam Bano, Muhammad Zia Aslam Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Intersections of Online and Offline Mediums: Navigating the Post-Pandemic Leisure Culture, Religious Dimensions, and Leisure Class in Kazakhstan <p style="text-align: justify;">With the advent of the Covid-19 pandemic, digitalization has accelerated in all areas of life. Each person as a social being strives to gain freedom at least during their leisure time, which was one of the reasons for thousands of anti-Covid protests around the world, including Kazakhstan. It shows the need for a deep analysis of leisure practices in the online medium and offline medium of modern society. The main thesis put forward in this paper concerns the urgent need for the modernization and regulation of offline leisure practices in Kazakhstan in accordance with the appropriate legal, cultural, moral, and religious dimensions. There were two inevitable processes taking place in the period of the Covid-19 pandemic: the digitalization of leisure practices and social distancing and personal isolation.&nbsp; Although in most cases the main concern during the pandemic was on issues of converting of practices to unusual conditions, fundamental themes affecting the very core of each of the religious traditions came to the fore from time to time. In this article the digitization of everyday life via leisure practices in the online medium and offline medium are also discussed.</p> Zhanar Abildinova, Hakan Gülerce, Yerkin Aubakirov, Manifa Sarkulova Copyright (c) 2023 Zhanar Abildinova, Hakan Gülerce, Yerkin Aubakirov, Manifa Sarkulova Wed, 06 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hate Speech in Nigerian Politics: An Islamic and Christian Perspectives <p style="text-align: justify;">The prevalence of hate speech in Nigerian politics is alarming. This paper aims to examine the remedy for hate speech in the Islamic and Christian perspectives. To achieve the designed objectives, qualitative methods involving historical and contextual approaches were used in data collection and analysis. The findings reveal that nowadays, in Nigeria, hate speech causes political sentiments and manipulations, religious insinuations and misinterpretations, and tribal jingoism and still is being used by some undesirable elements among the politicians. The findings further show that hate speech leads clergies and tribal jingoists to cause disaffection and civil insurrection among Nigerian citizens. This caused a huge setback to Nigerian sustainable development, both religiously and economically. The paper, therefore, recommends that Muslim scholars and priests should endeavour to create a conducive environment where a public lecture would be organized to emphasize the impacts of peaceful coexistence among Nigerian Muslims and Christians just to remedy the disease of hate speech.</p> Shuaibu Umar Gokaru, Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, Faisal Ahmad bin Abdul Hamid, Youcef Benselah, Mustaffa Abdullah, Abdul Karim bin Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Shuaibu Umar Gokaru, Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor, Faisal Ahmad Bin Abdul Hamid, Yousef Benselah, Mustaffa Abdullah, Abdul Karim bin Ali Fri, 29 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Crypto Currency through the Lens of the Sharī‘a Law: A Comparative Analysis of Scholarly Evaluations <p style="text-align: justify;">Digital advancements and innovations have revolutionized the way we live, work, and communicate. The financial industry is one of the sectors that have been significantly impacted by digital advancements and innovations. Blockchain technology is a digital technology that has the potential to transform the financial industry. Based on blockchain, cryptocurrencies are among the most significant technological advancements of the 21<sup>st</sup> century. They have provided a new way of transacting and investing. With the rise of cryptocurrencies, there has been an ongoing debate about their compatibility with various ethical and religious beliefs. One such belief system is the <em>Sharī‘a </em>Law, which governs the financial practices of Muslims, worldwide. As cryptocurrencies continue to gain popularity, it is essential to understand their compatibility with the <em>Sharī‘a </em>Law and resolve any resulting ethical dilemmas. The fundamental issue is whether cryptocurrencies violate the principles of <em>Sharī‘a</em> or can be considered a permissible investment option for Muslims. The article provides a detailed overview about digital currencies. It also explores the different types of digital currencies and their underlying technologies, such as block chain and smart contracts. This research relies on a quantitative approach, utilizing a systematic review of articles By extracting and analyzing data from scholarly works, the study aims to quantify the existing discourse on the compatibility of cryptocurrencies with Sharī‘a Law. This method enables the synthesis of quantitative insights from authoritative sources, contributing to a robust understanding of the ethical implications and adherence to <em>Sharī‘a</em> principles in the context of cryptocurrency use.</p> Hussain Mohi ud din Qadri, Fareed Ahmad Malik, Muhammad Mumtaz ul Hassan, Muhammad Azhar Abbasi Copyright (c) 2023 Hussain Mohi ud din Qadri, Fareed Ahmad Malik, Muhammad Mumtaz ul Hassan, Muhammad Azhar Abbasi Tue, 26 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Eternity of the Word of God: Exploring a Common Theme in Judeo-Christian and Muslim Theological Discourse <p style="text-align: justify;">Emerging religions typically lack an established theology initially. Their theology develops gradually; and Islam exhibits traces of influence from earlier belief systems. Therefore, some novel concepts in Muslim theology emerged through the contributions of converts from other faiths. The second and third centuries AH were the formative periods, after which thought degenerated into a split of hairs. Religion was in a ferment, which brought in many strange ideas. Nonetheless, some Muslim scholars disagree that even Judaism and Christianity had some influence on certain Muslim worldviews. Focusing on the doctrine of eternity of the Qur’ān, this paper finds out the extent to which not only Judaism and Christianity but even Greek philosophical principles had some influence on certain Muslim beliefs. The methodology was historical reasoning and analysis of facts in Greek, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The aim is to go beyond the semantic surface into the inner reaches of these traditions to see exactly where the notion of scriptural eternity is anchored. The paper draws attention to the fact that examining the theories about the Qur’ān in the light of inter-textual reasoning with the bible and pre-biblical literature produces interesting data for the Islamic theology of inclusivism although cross-cultural nexus with certain theories about the Qur’ān and Islam in general is rejected by Muslim researchers. The paper revisits the debate and traces the origin of the doctrine arguing that it has possible connections with Greek and Judeo-Christian beliefs. It also appraises some of the arguments of the principal theological groups that defended or refuted the doctrine, respectively.</p> Jibrail Bin Yusuf, Hassan Shakeel Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Jibrail Bin Yusuf, Hassan Shakeel Shah Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000