Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) <p>The Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) is HEC recognized Journal, presents a trailblazing platform to Islamic scholars and social scientists for the publication of their research articles.The JITC is a peer reviewed, bi-annual Journal published in spring and autumn.</p> en-US (Editorial Office) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Islam and Politics in Malaysia since 1957 <p>This paper discusses the relationship in post-independence Malaysia between the state, civil society and the country’s dominant religion, that is, Islam. When Malaya obtained independence from the British in 1957, many expected that Islam would lead to social and economic decline. The constitution states that Islam is the state religion, although it also states that religious freedom for non-Muslims is assured without discrimination. Since then, religious affairs have remained a state responsibility and Malaysia has been hailed for decades as an oasis of moderate Islam. However, during the last few years religiously motivated hatred has become prevalent and popular in Malaysia for many reasons. This paper underlines the factors that have led to the growth of hate and the decline of the moderate Islam previously found in Malaysia. It proposes that the radicalisation of Malaysian Muslims should be evaluated within the framework of current geopolitics and the impact on the well-being of the Muslim world, rather than localising it into regional and national faults. The paper argues that Islam in Malaysia is an instrument that shapes the political behaviour of the public and the ruling elite. Lastly, the paper proposes that effective governance and ensuring that citizens’ rights are respected are some of the most effective ways of eliminating extremism and preventing radicalisation.</p> Elmira Akhmetova Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Distinguishing Features Between Ibāḍīs and Khārijītes <p>This paper tackles one of the most challenging topics in Ibāḍī studies: the association between Ibāḍīs and the classical Khārijītes. The chief motive of conducting the study is to refute the constant unsubstantiated association between the moderate Ibāḍī school of thought and a classical extremist group, the Khārijītes. The paper adopts a multidisciplinary approach, making a comparative study between the two sects. This involves a discussion of the historical, political, and theological distinguishing features of Ibāḍīs compared to Khārijītes in three sections. The historical section reveals that the term Khārijītes only appeared in 64 AH/684 CE, when al-Muḥakkimah split into two main sects: the moderate Ibāḍīs and the violent Azāriqah, Ṣufriyyah, and Najdāt. The political section makes a decisive distinction between the Ibāḍīs and Khārijītes in three main practical areas: the ruling of Isti‘rāḍ, the ruling of Khurūj, and the ruling on taking an opponent’s property. The third section demonstrates that the theological distinction between the two sects is the main distinguishing marker and the most dangerous one. The paper concludes that there is no commonality between Ibāḍīs and Khārijītes apart from a historical denial of the arbitration between ‘Alī and Mu‘āwiyah at the battle of Ṣiffīn (37 AH/657 CE).</p> Al Muatasim Said Saif Al Maawali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 An Unlikely Champion of Women’s Rights under Muslim Personal Law <p>Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdūdi was one of the most renowned Muslim scholars of the 20th century. In addition to his portrayal as a gender insensitive / women unfriendly scholar, he is regarded as one of the founding fathers of political Islam in the modern era for developing a comprehensive political theory of Islam. Mawdūdi was a prolific writer who wrote on a wide array of subjects, although there are some areas in which his contributions have never attracted the academic attention they deserve. With this background, this paper analyzes Mawdūdi’s book Huquq al-Zawjayn written during the British Rāj which has generated debates in the post-colonial legal landscape of Pakistan about some important issues related to women’s rights in marriage. Mawdūdi expressed unflinching disapproval of his contemporary Muslim scholars for their parasitic imitation of the rules of fiqh and their hesitation to have recourse to the divine sources, that is, Qur’ān and Sunnah for ushering solutions of then prevalent religious and social vices. Additionally, he criticized sternly the British Raj and the byproduct of its legal apparatus in the domain of family law, that is, the Anglo-Muhammadan law. Consequently, Mawdūdi presented a model for Muslim personal law inspired by and reconstructed from Qur’ānic verses and sayings of the Holy Prophet (SAW).<br>Keywords: , , , ,</p> Shahbaz Cheema Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Lexical and Conceptual Language Compression/ Decompression through Antonymic Construals in the Qur’ān <p>This study investigates the lexical and conceptual compression/decompression of the Arabic language brought about by means of antonymic construals in the selected category ‘Signs of Allah'sMagnanimity and Omnipotence’ of the Qur’ān. It aims to have an insight into the usage based and context dependent functions of antonymy in creating compression and decompression of language though dynamic construal approach to antonymy. The data were gathered by using purposive sampling technique. 861 verses were selected as the universe for this research. Eighty four verses were then taken as the content or population for the study. Further, through two tiered sampling we selected eight verses as the sample to answer the research question i.e., to what extent the context affects language compression and decompression that take place in the selected category i.e., ‘Signs of Allah's Magnanimity and Omnipotence’ through antonymic construals? The study finally concluded that the context plays a central role to cause language compression and decompression through the antonymic pairs in the Qur’ān.</p> Shaheen Mubarik, Nadia Anwar Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 The Status of PDF Books and Copyright Laws in Sharīʿah Teachings <p>There are two kinds of copyrights, literary and monetary. The literary right is acknowledged as a legal right by everyone and it demands that any writing, invention, discovery or inscription should be ascribed to its original author or creator and not to anyone else.1 However, scholars differ about the monetary right. There is no difference of opinion about receiving money for an invention or an authorship because it is supported by the Islamic law.2 The actual point of debate is the registration of such an invention or authorship in someone’s name under the provision of copyright laws which create a personal monopoly on the use of copyrighted knowledge. The majority of scholars is in favour of such copyright laws; whereas some academics based on the Ḥanafī School of jurisprudence are against the laws that guarantee intellectual property rights. This research article explores the origins and basis of both sides of the scholarly divide and suggests a moderate view between these two opinions.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Zubair, Shamana Mudassir Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 A Critical Analysis of Some Ideals of Postmodernism in Various Fields of Knowledge and Morality <p>Postmodernism was born under Western episteme and is based on the rejection of the narratives given by modernity. The first and foremost characteristic of postmodernism is the rejection of absolutism including absolute truth and it propagates relativism in every field as the only possible solution. Moreover, it does not endorse absolute values and beliefs, contemplates human identity as the construction of society and denies essentialism. It does not endorse the idea that values are a source of development and rejects the idea that human actions are influenced by predetermined ideals. The texts that have been the source of change and guidance for millions of people throughout the history have been devoid of all their sacredness and authenticity using the theory of deconstruction. This theory gives every reader the right to interpret every text according to his own will and liking. Postmodern debates have influenced every field of knowledge. Even the morality and the value system endorsed by postmodernism is relative and subjective instead of absolute and objective. This research paper is based on the descriptive method and provides a critical examination of postmodernism and its impact on various fields of knowledge.</p> Muhammad Awais Shaukat, Tahira Basharat Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Discourse on Nationalism <p>The chief purpose of this paper is to understand and compare the political ideologies of two key thinkers and leaders of twentieth century Muslim India on the question of nationalism. These thinkers are Dr Muhammad Iqbal (1873-1938) and Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957). Firstly, concept of nationalism has been explored in the political writings and statements of these thinkers. Secondly, debate between Muhammad Iqbal and Maulana Madani over their conceptions of “nation” has been discussed. Thirdly these theories of nationalism have been compared in the historical context as well as in the overall conceptual framework of these thinkers. Finally, the study has been concluded by discussing what the contemporary Muslim world can learn from the intellectual heritage of Iqbal and Maulana Madani.</p> Shahid Rasheed, Dr. Humaira Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Islamic Microfinancing by the Banking Sector of Pakistan <p>This study highlights the obstacles which limit the penetration of the banking sector in the field of Islamic microfinance in Pakistan, keeping in view the practitioners’ perspective as to how these obstacles can be overcome. In Pakistan, where approximately sixty percent (60%) of the population is living below the international poverty line, Islamic microfinance has the potential to play a vital role in alleviating poverty. Unfortunately, the banking sector of Pakistan is reluctant to contribute in Islamic microfinance due to some limitations from the bankers’ perspective. Qualitative approach has been followed in this study in which semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six participants from all over Pakistan, including five from Islamic, seven from conventional, thirteen from microfinance and one from an Islamic microfinance bank. Interviews were conducted with the board of directors, Sharīʿah board members, senior management, and microfinance heads. According to the experts, the mindset of bankers, lack of collateral, weak role of the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) and the government of Pakistan in setting targets, limited availability of sector targeted products, lack of customer awareness, lack of initial capital, time consumption and documentation problems are among the issues faced by the banking sector. These experts emphasized the crucial role of the SBP and government support to promote Islamic microfinancing through banks. State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) as regulator and other commercial banks, Islamic microfinance banks and their boards of directors, Sharīʿah board members, senior management, and microfinance heads can implement the outcomes of this study.</p> Mohammad Ayaz, Hassan Shakeel Shah, Amat ul Mateen Noor, Sadaf Shaheen, Jibrail Bin Yusuf Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Marginalization and Reform of Religion <p>The term marginalization is often used for a community or group which is pushed to the edges of the society through certain social, political, and/or religious restrictions. The history of German Jews and Muslims of the Indian subcontinent stands witness that, to varying degrees over time, they were bound to live on the edges of their respective societies. This discrimination was not just because of their different social, cultural, and political status but religion was also a major factor behind it. In such conditions, Moses Mendelssohn and Syed Ahmad Khan worked for the betterment of their respective Jewish and Muslim communities. Although the work of both scholars is a recurring theme of discussion in the academic world, still there is no study available in which their efforts have been compared. By presenting a feature by feature comparison of the works of both scholars, the current paper first figures out their methodology and then explores their motive behind using pure reason to interpret sacred scriptures. It is also argued that there are fewer differences and more commonalities in their works. Their primary aim was to equip their people with modern education, since they thought that through educational reform they would be able to improve the social, political, and economic conditions of their people. Although they achieved noteworthy success, their efforts changed the religious direction of their people. Especially after the reform of Mendelssohn, a significant number of Jews distanced themselves from their ancestral religion.</p> Zohaib Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Discourse on the Significance of Rituals in Religious Socialization <p>The reformist movement initiated by the Waliullah family mainly focusing upon the prevailing rituals took a new turn in the last quarter of the twentieth century, when Sir Syed started his own movement against certain rituals under the banner of Tahzib ul Akhlāq (Mohammedan Social Reformer). Not only did the modernists, but also the traditional scholars joined his movement. The rationale for this article is the absence of any counter-narrative for this position in the religious discourse. Those who have worked upon this discourse have usually been focusing upon its permissibility, which has already been explained in Usool i Fiqh under the heading of Urf and Adaat. Right after the wave of secularization in the west, the crisis of spirituality and tradition forced sociologists to write about the functions of rituals and traditions in the formation of a healthy society. This article tries to evaluate the literature produced against the concept of rituals and re-establishes the importance of rituals and customs in an Islamic society by providing evidences from the texts of different schools of thought. Consequently, this article tries to establish a religious and sociological counter narrative for the significance of rituals and customs in an Islamic society.<br>Keywords:&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Rasheed Arshad, Farid Bin Masood Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Islamic Calendar Anomalies Reshaping Investor Behavior <p>The objective of this study is to explore how investors execute decisions in persistence of Islamic anomalies in context of Pakistan stock exchange. Applying interpretive approach, data was acquired from PSX investor by asking a series of questions through an interview protocol. Interviews were conducted by using semi-structured interview approach. The responses were explored using NVivo 10.0 plus software. The results of the study indicated Islamic anomalies are changing emotions and perceptions of investors due to their past experience and perceived market consequences, and biased behaviors. Due to Islamic anomalies investors decisions are found to be biased and depict a self-serving, anchoring and overconfident behavior. Moreover, various conventional market factors (e.g. market capitalization, price earning and capita market line fluctuation etc.) are constant and reshaping investor decisions. Promotion of corporate culture, controlling mispricing, conducting awareness/ training sessions on rationality, capital gain than price gain is seriously required in local context. This is the first qualitative study investigating Islamic Calendar anomalies and PSX investors, leading to the formulation of sound policy implications.</p> Sajid Iqbal, Nadeem Iqbal, Arshad Muneer Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Association of Religious Activities and Social Interaction of Christian and Sikh Minorities with Muslims in Pakistan <p>Faith in any religion takes significant importance in a country where intolerance and extremism are high. Acceptance and tolerance are keys for adjustment in religious activities and are pertinent for smooth running and dynamism. In contrast to it, intolerance and non-acceptance in religious activities is a burning issue with respect to adjustment problems faced by minorities in a country. This study aims to explore the adjustment problems faced by minorities, especially by Christians and Sikhs for the performance of their religious activities in district Peshawar and Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The prime aim and goal of the study is to illustrate the ways minorities are targeted (Christians and Sikhs) and have to adjust with Muslim majorities for the performance of their religious activities, along with making efforts to strengthen various modes of social interaction within themselves in the targeted area. For the measurement of variable, five-level Likert scale was used, and the chi-square test was applied to find out the association level of an independent variable with the dependent variable. Based on the Sekaran table, a total of 372 respondents were selected from the local minorities to analyse the adjustment problems faced by minorities in the performance of their religious activities. The findings of the study reveal that Christians and Sikhs usually celebrate their religious festivals and rituals publicly which highlights the strong social interaction between majorities and minorities in the target area. But still, slight issues of disturbances with their religious rituals and festivals were found in some places of the target area.</p> Azizullah Jan, Ashfaq U. Rehman, Ahmad Hassan Khattak, Ihsan Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Conceptualization of Religious Belonging of Christian Youth in Higher Education <p>A phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experience of Christian students in HEC recognized private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to find out how the religious belonging of Christian youth influences their lives within their university. Qualitative research method was used for this study. Using phenomenology as the strategy of inquiry, in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of six participants including three girls and three boys currently studying in the University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore. The findings of the study revealed that the university did not ask the students about their religion, specifically. So, the students did not experience any discrimination at the time of admission. However, due to the lack of information about religious minority students, they were compelled to study Islamic studies as a subject. Due to their religious belonging Christian students experienced stereotypical behavior, such as some Christian students reported that their Muslim fellows avoided them and hesitated to share their meals with them after knowing their religious affiliation. Majority (4 out of 6) of the students did not experience any biased behavior from their teachers but some students did face biased behavior after revealing their religious affiliation. So, this study suggests that universities should ask students about their religious belonging and considering the needs of religious minority students, curriculum should seek input from religious minority groups. In order to promote religious tolerance at HEIs, universities should design curriculum for all students incorporating contents of interreligious harmony. Higher Education Commission (HEC) should ensure the implementation of policy regarding religious minorities at institutional level.</p> Amna Farooq, Tayyaba Sohail Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Contextualizing Christian theology in South Asia <p>South Asian region has largely been under the influence of Indian, Chinese and Arabic cultures. All of the religious traditions have been strongly localized and tolerated various forms of folk cultures. Christianity in this region came in the early sixteenth century and flourished in the colonial era. It is normally assumed that it escaped from the process of adaptation and syncretism. However, this is not the case, as there were a number of missionaries not interested in Europeanizing their converts as in the case of Jesuits missionaries in India. Here in this article an attempt has been made to explicate the early attempt of western missionaries and local Christian to localize Christianity. To achieve this goal this paper has been divided into three sections. First section sheds light upon the overall attitude of early missionaries to the indigenous cultures and religions of India. Second section deals with the early efforts of contemporization in Indian Subcontinent. Third section will illustrate the situation church had to face after the partition of India, and how this partition impeded the process of contemporization movement. As a method, this article reviews the efforts of both native Christians and missionaries to indigenize Christianity in Indian first chronologically and then thematically.</p> Farman Ali, Dr, Humaira Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 Aurangzeb Alamgir on Inter Faith Harmony <p>Islam provides an absolute religious freedom to the followers of all the religions. The Muslims promoted peace, mutual respect, inter-faith harmony and religious equality in the Sub-Continent in this ideological prospective. The Mughal rulers not only continued this glorious Islamic tradition but also promoted it on a very large scale. Aurangzeb Alamgir is one of those Mughal rulers who not only granted religious freedom to the non-Muslim inhabitants of India rather he honored many non-Muslims especially the Hindus with important public offices. He took special steps for their comprehensive socio-religious welfare and progress. He not only provided security to the contemporary religious worship places of the non-Muslims, but also allowed them to build new religious as well as educational institutions where they wanted. Contrary to the historical facts, some of the partial writers accuse Aurangzeb Alamgir to be prejudiced and cruel towards his non-Muslim subjects, particularly the Hindus. They think that Aurangzeb Alamgir demolished the Hindu temples as well as the Hindu schools. He increased the amount of “Jizya”, took some steps for forced religious preaching and the Hindus were expelled from public services and official posts. But, these allegations do not match the historical realities. This research article aims to conduct a thorough and an impartial analysis of these allegations.</p> Muhammad Riaz Mahmood, Muhammad Irfan Ahmad, Hafiz Adil Jahangir Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100