Scientific Inquiry and Review 2023-11-23T07:41:15+00:00 Dr. Aziz Ur Rehman Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Scientific Inquiry and Review is a peer reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing knowledge about the research updates in various fields of science that is published Quarterly. It is a source of authentic information for scientific personnel covering wide range of research aspects.</p> Plant-Extract of Mimusops elengi leaves and Flower-Mediated ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biomedical Applications 2023-11-22T10:51:38+00:00 Iram Bashir Syeda Shaista Gillani Fouzia Majeed <p>The current study aims to employ an ecologically sustainable method, utilizing a plant-based extract derived from <em>Mimusops elengi </em>as both a reducing and capping agent. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was done from aqueous leaves and flower extracts of <em>Mimusops elengi</em>. Different spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize these biosynthesized (ZnO NPs) zinc oxide nanoparticles like UV-visible, FTIR, XRD, SEM, and EDX techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy showed the absorption wavelength of ZnO NPs at 353nm (leaves extracts) and 365nm (flowers extracts). FTIR spectra showed the absorption frequency of different functional groups present in plant extract along with ZnO peak at 637cm-1 (leaves extracts) and 643cm-1 (flowers extracts). XRD results revealed the hexagonal structure and crystalline nature of biosynthesized ZnO NPs. The average grain size calculated for ZnO NPs of leaves and flower extracts was 10.37 and 15.52nm, respectively. SEM analysis showed a hexagonal shape. EDX confirmed the formation and purity of ZnO NPs by showing an abundant % of zinc and oxygen atoms. The significant bactericidal efficacy of biosynthesized ZnO NPs was found against pathogens <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. When compared to ZnO nanoparticles from flower extracts and biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles from leaf extract exhibited substantial suppression.&nbsp; ZnO-NPs synthesized from leaves and flower extracts of <em>Mimusops elengi</em> can be subjugated for biomedical and ecologically sustainable applications.</p> 2023-10-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Syeda Shaista Gillani Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Quantitative Analysis of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Liquid Suspension: A Comparative Study with Compendial Method 2023-11-22T10:51:32+00:00 Muhammad Aslam Shahzad Ali Mahmood Ahmed Muhammad Aneeq Javed Afsah Iftikhar Yousaf Abbas Aamir Sohail Mehvish Abdul-Rehman Khansa Habibullah <p>Co-trimoxazole is a combination of trimethoprim or sulfamethoxazole. It is used to treat common infectious diseases, including the lung disorders, urinary disorders, and gastrointestinal infections. The current study was performed to develop a new RP-HPLC technique. The main purpose was to analyze SMX (Sulfamethoxazole) and TMP (Trimethoprim) in a liquid medium of 60mL. The analyses of SMX and TMP were performed on RP-HPLC with a C18 column (25 cm × 4.6 mm) packed with 5 µm ODS, L1 stationary phase, while the mobile phase consisted of methanol and water with a ratio of 6:4. The pH of the system was adjusted to 2.6 by using dilute phosphoric acid. The injection volume was 20μL having a flow rate of 1 mL/minute and column temperature of 40ºC. The analysis of all chromatograms was performed at a single wavelength of 254 nm. The validation of the method was determined for range, precision, linearity, specificity, accuracy, and system suitability. This method was found to be more environmentally friendly with respect to the other compendial methods, which are used for the TMP and SMX analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-10-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Aslam Coefficient Inequalities for Certain Subclass of Starlike Function with respect to Symmetric points related to q-exponential Function 2023-11-23T07:41:15+00:00 Zameer Abbas Sadia Riaz <p>The current study aims to define a class of starlike functions with respect to symmetric points subordinated with q-exponential functions. Furthermore, &nbsp;to investigate the coefficient inequalities and possible upper-bound of the third-order Hankel determinant for the functions belonging to our new class this study observed the new and already derived results for further analysis.</p> 2023-10-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zameer Abbas Properties of Graph Based on Divisor-Euler Functions 2023-11-22T10:51:18+00:00 Asif abd ur Rehman Hafiz M. Khalid Mehmood <p>Divisor function &nbsp;gives the residues of &nbsp;which divide it. A function denoted by &nbsp;&nbsp;counts the total possible divisors of &nbsp;and &nbsp;gives the list of co-prime integers to . Many graphs had been constructed over these arithmetic functions. Using &nbsp;and , a well known graph named as divisor Euler function graph has been constructed. In this paper, we use divisor function and anti Euler function . We label the symbol &nbsp;to count those residues of &nbsp;which are not co-prime to . By using these functions, we find a new graph, called divisor anti-Euler function graph (DAEFG), denoted as . Let &nbsp;&nbsp;be a DAEFG, where &nbsp;and . The objective of this sequel is to introduce and discuss the properties of DAEFG. In this work, we discuss novel classes of proposed graph with its structure using loops, cycles, components of graph, degree of its vertices, components as complete, bipartite, planar, Hamiltonian and Eulerian graphs. Also, we find chromatic number, chromatic index and clique of these graphs.</p> 2023-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Asif Rehman Investigating the Impact of Environmental Toxicology of Heavy Metals in Fish: A Study of Rivers of Pakistan 2023-11-22T10:51:22+00:00 Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha Saima Naz Syeda Saira Iqbal Unab Zahra <p>The global concern of heavy metal toxicity has affected all nations, as the discharge of agricultural runoff and untreated industrial waste into water bodies, including rivers, leads to environmental toxicology. This increased level of heavy metals poses risks not only for marine life but also to those who consume them. While fish is an important protein source, consuming contaminated fish containing high levels of heavy metals can have severe adverse effects on human health. Therefore, it is crucial to address these pollution sources effectively in Pakistan, where a significant portion of the population relies on agriculture and fishing for their living. The country's rapid industrialization and urbanization have substantially increased pollutants in its rivers and other water bodies. The current body of research has indicated that the elevated levels of heavy metals in the ecosystem, including the Indus River, pose a significant threat to the local ecosystem and the well-being of marine life. Heavy metal pollution in Pakistani rivers originates from multiple sources, such as industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, and municipal waste. The unregulated discharge of industrial waste into rivers is a major contributor to heavy metal pollution in Pakistani rivers. Moreover, the excessive and uncontrolled use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture equally contributes to the contamination of rivers with heavy metals. The current study is a review article, which provides a comprehensive explanation of how environmental toxicology affects the ecosystem, especially concerning the rivers of Pakistan.</p> 2023-10-27T11:01:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Saima Naz, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Unab Zahra, Syeda Saira Iqbal