Scientific Inquiry and Review https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR <p style="text-align: justify;">Scientific Inquiry and Review is a peer reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing knowledge about the research updates in various fields of science that is published Quarterly. It is a source of authentic information for scientific personnel covering wide range of research aspects.</p> en-US editor.sir@umt.edu.pk (Dr. Aziz Ur Rehman) editorialasstistant.sir@umt.edu.pk (Editorial Assistant) Thu, 04 Jan 2024 07:26:19 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Efficacy of Exopolysaccharide (EPS) Producing Chromium Resistant Bacteria in the Removal of Chromium from Wastewater https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/3195 <p>The contamination of heavy metals has caused major health risks, which has particularly led to toxicological manifestations, causing ailments and diseases like irritation of the skin and lungs that can cause nausea and vomiting. Heavy metals; therefore, impart hazardous effects on overall human health due to their potential to accumulate in the living tissues through the food chain mechanism. Conventional remediation strategies have become a challenge to resolve the rising issues of heavy metals. Among different heavy metals, chromium gained much attention due to its prevalence in different oxidation states; however, Cr (III) (less toxic) and Cr (VI) (toxic), are the most prevalent ones. Hexavalent chromium can be converted by some bacteria to the less insoluble and less toxic Cr (III). The current study was conducted to isolate chromium-resistant microbes from the tannery and dye industries, and their potential was evaluated for the reduction of their toxic form. A total number of 13 isolated chromium-resistant bacteria were screened for the production of EPS and out of 13 isolates, 6 were found positive. The effect of temperature (25oC, 30oC, 35oC, 40oC, and 45oC), pH (5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) and time period (24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours) on the exopolysaccharides production was examined. It was found that optimum temperature was 35oC, pH was 8, and the time period was 72 hours, respectively, both for the growth and chromium reduction potential. These conditions seemed to be optimum given that the bacteria (alkaliphiles) were isolated from a slightly alkaline environment, which have the ability to grow in a slightly alkaline environment and temperature ranging from 34oC to 36oC. The average chromium reduction potential of EPS-producing bacteria was 91%, and the average growth of these bacteria was 1.0192, respectively. Significant positive correlation was observed between the number of EPS and chromium reduction of EPS-producing chromium-resistant bacterial isolate.</p> Sumaira Mazhar, Umer Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Sumaira Mazhar, Umer Saleem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/3195 Mon, 15 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Overview of Microbial Fermented Feed and its Impact on the Poultry Industry https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/3144 <p>The poultry sector typically accounts for approximately 26% of the total meat production in several countries. However, the poultry sector is grappling nowadays with a rising problem of substandard meat production, owing to the usage of low-quality feed for the chicks. Previous studies have indicated to improve the quality of chick feed, however, researchers are still trying to improve the quality of feed by refining its shelf life and nutritional contents. Fermentation of various agricultural products, other than traditional feed, such &nbsp;as rice husk, palm kernel cake, wheat bran, potato pulp, banana peel, corn seed meal is carried out by using bacterial and fungal cultures to increase the production and quality of chicken feed. Although all these additives have the potential to be used as a replacement for traditional feed, nonetheless the main issue lies in the increased cellulose and fiber content. These constraints are being removed by using bacterial and fungal strains, especially those that are reported to have cellulose digestion and various enzymatic activities. Each strain has its own optimized fermenting conditions, such as solid-state fermentation or submerged fermentation, in which it yields its maximum output, before fermenting any feed with a specific microbe. These optimized conditions and techniques must be monitored in order to get the desired upshot. Therefore, this review article focuses on different substrates fermented by a variety of microbial strains along with their effectiveness and their future prospects. Furthermore, this study aims to suggest an alternative resource, which can be used to meet the poultry needs of the increasing population.</p> Uzma Rafi, Aansa Khatoon, Sundas Nisar, Imran Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 Uzma Rafi, Aansa Khatoon, Sundas Nisar, Imran Afzal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/3144 Wed, 03 Jan 2024 04:03:29 +0000