Scientific Inquiry and Review https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR <p style="text-align: justify;">Scientific Inquiry and Review is a peer reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing knowledge about the research updates in various fields of science that is published Quarterly. It is a source of authentic information for scientific personnel covering wide range of research aspects.</p> en-US editor.sir@umt.edu.pk (Dr. Aziz Ur Rehman) editorialasstistant.sir@umt.edu.pk (Editorial Assistant) Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Adsorptive remediation of wastewater pollutants using different nanomaterials https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2514 <p>Water is an essential element for human resources. The contamination of water with toxic pollutants is the biggest global challenge. Water is contaminated with various toxic inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (dyes) pollutants. Water pollution is primarily created by human-made activities, including household, agricultural and industrial waste. Nanotechnology is promising to ensure safe and healthy drinking water. The review provides a brief overview of recent nanomaterials developments, such as their usage as nano adsorbents, for water treatment processes. Nanomaterials have high adsorption capacity due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio. The main focus of this review article is on the adsorptive remediation of water pollutants. Nanomaterials for adsorptive remediation of pollutants (heavy metals and dyes) are categorized as organic (carbon and graphene-based) and inorganic (metals and metals oxides-based) nanomaterials. They can be modified with different functional groups to increase their adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of nanomaterials to adsorb the pollutants depends on pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial pollutants concentration. The nanomaterials provide a powerful alternative to conventional treatment approaches due to improved adsorption capacity. However, nanotechnology needs to overcome the environmental concerns and cost-effectiveness of nanomaterials. The regeneration and reuse of nanomaterials can enable it.<a name="_Toc64694206"></a><a name="_Toc64694298"></a><a name="_Toc64694207"></a><a name="_Toc64694299"></a><a name="_Toc64694208"></a><a name="_Toc64694300"></a></p> Mubeen Ashraf, Amina Khan, Mubashar Alam, Tahreem Saleem, Jamshaid Ashraf Copyright (c) 2022 Mubeen Ashraf, Amina Khan, Mubashar Alam, Tahreem Saleem, Jamshaid Ashraf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2514 Mon, 14 Nov 2022 07:16:50 +0000 Extension of Some Fixed-Point Theorems in Neutrosophic Metric Spaces Via Control Function https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/3028 <p>The aim of this paper is to prove some results in the sense of the neutrosophic metric space by utilizing the control function. Also, we discuss and prove some important common fixed-point theorems in the G-complete neutrosophic metric space by utilizing the alternating distance function (ADF) and defined neutrosophic -weak contraction. &nbsp;We give some non-trivial examples which are support our main result.</p> Usman Ali, Umar Ishtiaq, Zill E Shams, Khaleel Ahmad, Mohammad Irfan Haider, Muhammad Zeeshan Shafi Copyright (c) 2022 Usman Ali, Umar Ishtiaq, Zill E Shams, Khaleel Ahmad, Mohammad Irfan Haider, Muhammad Zeeshan Shafi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/3028 Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of various Carbonated Soft Drinks to Assess their Suitability for Human Consumption https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2320 <p><em>A series of nine carbonated drinks were collected from the open market of Peshawar, namely Pepsi, Mountain Dew, 7-up, Mirinda, Coca-cola, Sprite, Fanta, Amrat cola and Amrat lemon. Various physicochemical parameters were measured to evaluate the quality of the collected drinks. Brix (Total dissolved solids) were found to be 11.40%, 11.90%, 10.70%, 12.90%, 10.37%, 10.0%, 13.00%, 10.60%, and 10.20% in Pepsi, Mountain Dew, 7-up, Mirinda, Coca-cola, Sprite, Fanta, Amrat cola and Amrat lemon respectively. CO<sub>2 </sub>gas volume(G.V) was found to be 3.60G.V, 3.20G.V, 3.70G.V, 1.80G.V, 3.80G.V, 3.80G.V, 1.80G.V, 3.80G.V and 3.70G.V in Pepsi, Mountain Dew, 7-up, Mirinda, Coca-cola Sprite Fanta, Amrat cola and Amrat lemon, respectively. Caffeine was found only in Pepsi cola, Coca-cola, Amrat cola and Mountain Dew having a concentration of 105mg/L, 109mg/L and 146 mg/L in Pepsi cola Coca-cola, Amrat cola and Mountain Dew, respectively. Pepsi cola, Coca-cola and Amrat cola were free of citric acid. The amount of citric acid was 1337.6 mg/L, 1459.2 mg/L, 1816.32 mg/L, 1196.8 mg/L 1664 mg/L and 1216 mg/L in Mountain Dew, 7-up, Mirinda, Sprite, Fanta and Amrat lemon, respectively. Phosphoric acid was found only in Pepsi cola, Coca-cola and Amrat cola, 583.1 mg/L, 490 mg/L and 588 mg/L, respectively.</em></p> Aamir Ali, Muhammad Ayaz Afridi, Muhammad Mansoor, Waqas Chohan, Aasir Ali, Hafiz Muhammad Zaheer Afzal Copyright (c) 2022 Aamir Ali, Muhammad Ayaz Afridi, Muhammad Mansoor, Waqas Chohan, Aasir Ali, Hafiz Muhammad Zaheer Afzal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2320 Mon, 14 Nov 2022 07:51:57 +0000 Some Recent Developments On Lacunary ∆-Statistical Convergence In Neutrosophic n-Normed Linear Spaces https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2916 <p>In this paper, we introduce the notion of Lacunary -Statistically Convergent and Lacunary -Statistically Cauchy sequences in a Neutrosophic <em>n</em>-normed space. Also, we give their properties using Lacunary density and prove relation between these notions.</p> Jeyaraman Maduraiveeran, S. Satheesh Kanna, B. Silamparasan, J. Johnsy Copyright (c) 2022 Jeyaraman Maduraiveeran, S. Satheesh Kanna, B. Silamparasan, J. Johnsy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2916 Mon, 14 Nov 2022 07:58:49 +0000 Phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil by using sorghum plant in association with the indigenous microbes https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/1854 <p>Heavy metals are being discharged in large quantities in land and water bodies, causing long-term damage to living organisms. Phytoremediation is an effective way to address this problem. The goal of this study was to identify that how lead resistant microorganisms affected sorghum plant growth in the presence of lead and in the absence of lead. Lead resistant microbes were isolated, characterized from seeds of sorghum plant to investigate growth and concentration of lead within sorghum plant. Microbes were isolated and then grown on lead contaminated media with different concentrations i.e. 300µg/ml, 400µg/ml, 500µg/ml and 600µg/ml. Highly lead resistant bacterial isolates were chosen and inoculated with sorghum seeds under typical environmental conditions in small pots with and without lead contamination (300mg/Kg). The sorghum plant grew faster and yielded more when it was grown with lead-tolerant bacteria in the presence of lead contamination. In comparison to a control without lead tolerant bacteria, inoculating seeds with lead tolerant bacteria lowered the levels of lead in sorghum plants. All of the lead resistant isolates reduced the amount of lead in sorghum plant, but the GS3 and IS2 isolate reduced the amount of lead in the sorghum plant the most. Current study showed that lead tolerant bacterial isolates were very helpful to degrade lead when grown with sorghum seeds and it also enhances growth of sorghum plant.</p> Iqra Tabassum, Beenish Sarfraz, Sumaira Mazhar Copyright (c) 2022 Sumaira Mazhar, Iqra Tabassum, Beenish Sarfraz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/1854 Mon, 14 Nov 2022 09:30:09 +0000 Evaluation of Thrombolytic Potential of Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2135 <p>The use of plants and plants derived substances is increasing day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents. The thrombolytic agents play a crucial role in curing various human diseases such as atherothrombotic diseases, pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction etc. The current research was performed to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of <em>Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson</em> (Sea buckthorn, SBT). The thrombolytic potentials of leaves, stems and berries were found to be 28%, 26% and 44%, respectively relative to that observed for standard streptokinase (59%). <em>E. rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson </em>was found to possess the thrombolytic properties and has the ability to lyse the blood clot. It was concluded that the stems, leaves and berries extract of SBT may find applications as future thrombolytic agents. The fruit of sea buck thorn was found to display higher thrombolytic potential as compared to leaves and stem. The presence of important functional groups i.e., alcohol, aldehyde, alkyne, alkene, amines and ester in different ariel parts of sea buckthorn was verified by FTIR spectroscopy.</p> Dr Shabbir Hussain, Ayesha Rehman, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Riaz, Iqra Batool Copyright (c) 2022 Dr Shabbir Hussain, Ayesha Rehman, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Riaz, Iqra Batool https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/SIR/article/view/2135 Mon, 14 Nov 2022 09:36:33 +0000