Governance and Society Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Governance and Society Review (GSR) is a double-blind, peer-reviewed, bi-annual journal published by the School of Governance and Society, University of Management &amp; Technology, Lahore. GSR publishes <span class="JsGRdQ">research that contributes to the public administration theory, policy and practice. It widely covers the areas of public administration, public policies, service delivery, governance, and management in public organizations.</span></p> University of Management & Technology (UMT), Lahore en-US Governance and Society Review 2959-1619 Opening the Black Box of Voter Behavior: Role of Political Opinion Leadership and Caste <p style="text-align: justify;">Elections are resource intensive and high-stake events. They are hard to finance, expensive to conduct, and remain an administrative challenge for any developing country. It is a curious situation when after all the efforts of major stakeholders, voter turnout remains low. Politicians, political parties, and regulating bodies top the list of those stakeholders who are most interested and consequently affected by such voter behavior during elections. Being part of a social group also plays an important role in raising awareness about voting and encourages voters to know more about the process, mostly for the benefit of the group at large. This study focused on the role of political opinion leadership and caste as two of the main factors that may inform voter satisfaction according to the Behavioral Reasoning Theory (BRT). The results about group association or the caste of respondents exhibited by this study remain typical of the Pakistani society. The role of political opinion leadership in informing and encouraging voters becomes important to fill the information gap and save the time of voters. Based on the data gathered from registered voters, this study revealed that political opinion leadership and caste significantly influence voter satisfaction, particularly in the context of a close-knit developing country.</p> Azhar Manzoor Tayyaba Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2023 Azhar Manzoor 2023-12-08 2023-12-08 2 2 1 21 Concentric Circles Theory and Nigeria’s Defence Policy: An Appraisal <p style="text-align: justify;">This study appraises the application of the concentric circles theory in Nigeria’s defence policy. It has been noted that Nigeria’s defence policy manifests the concentric circles theory, ever since the country attained independence in 1960. The theory posits three circles. The first circle is about Nigeria and the defence of its territorial integrity and sovereignty. The second circle covers all states of the West African sub-region, while the third circle includes the whole of Africa. However, the theory is not without challenges as certain threats experienced by Nigeria have made the theory inadequate to provide an effective defence policy. The current study, therefore, reiterates the need for Nigeria to take decisive steps to remedy the challenges posed by the concentric circles theory. The aim is to formulate a more realistic and credible defence policy backed by a strong military industrial complex.</p> Nneka Amalu Ekeng Antigha Okon Etu Gboshe Copyright (c) 2023 Nneka Amalu, Ekeng Antigha Okon 2023-12-12 2023-12-12 2 2 22 35 Innocent [Until] Proven Guilty! Bearing the Stigma of ‘the Corrupt’ under Accountability Trials in Pakistan <p style="text-align: justify;">This study focuses on a key drawback of the public sector accountability scenario in Pakistan. It touches upon the implications faced by public sector officials due to poor implementation of accountability laws and regulations. It emphasizes the possible reasons in terms of why and how accountability outcomes produce a ‘stigma’ for persons who face trial and are not found guilty, instead of bringing in some betterment. It also discusses the wide ranging implications of the stigma, characterized by social rejection, cultural alienation, political and economic marginalization, and loss of career development opportunity, especially in the event when such stigma is induced by ‘media trials’ of <em>sub judice</em> cases. The authors also attempt to establish how the weak, ineffective, and politically-driven accountability mechanisms in Pakistan lead the public sector in not making any progress under accountability regulations. Several institutional ‘systemic’ factors that appear to have cause-effect relationships — characterized as a ‘vicious circle’, are identified. Some conclusions are also drawn and recommendations made regarding future policy and organizations to help de-stigmatize accountability regulations.</p> Muhammad Saqib Anjum Lughmani Muhammad Tanweer Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Saqib Anjum Lughmani, Muhammad Tanweer Abdullah 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 2 2 36 55 Challenges in the Implementation of Hospital Management Information System (HMIS) in Healthcare Sector: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan <p style="text-align: justify;">The implementation of HMIS (Hospital Management Information System) in the healthcare sector of Lahore, Pakistan has the potential to revolutionize the healthcare service delivery by improving efficiency, accuracy, and patient care. Nevertheless, the implementation process is marred with certain challenges. This study examines these challenges, including ICT infrastructure barriers and financial barriers. A quantitative methodology was used to collect comprehensive data regarding the challenges faced during HMIS implementation in three (03) hospitals — that is, Jinnah Hospital, Social Security Hospital at Multan Road, and Social Security Hospital at Shahdara. A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire to gather the experiences of the healthcare professionals involved in the implementation process. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed the <em>p-</em>values of financial barriers and ICT infrastructure barriers as less than 0.05, indicating that they constitute major challenges in HMIS implementation, explaining a significant percentage of the variance. The study confirmed the hypothesis that ICT infrastructure barriers and financial barriers significantly influence HMIS implementation. Considering the rapidly evolving technological landscape, a longitudinal study is required to evaluate the changing impact of financial barriers and ICT infrastructure on HMIS implementation over time.</p> Munawer Siddique Zermina Tasleem Ayesha Siddiqua Salman Ahmad Hafiz Abdul Ghaffar Copyright (c) 2023 Munawer Siddique, Zermina Tasleem, Ayesha Siddiqua, Salman Ahmad, Hafiz Abdul Ghaffar 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 2 2 56 80 Principal-Agent Model and SADC’s Approach to Zimbabwe, 2000-2013: A Consistent Framework to Account for Inconsistency <p>The paper argues for the utility of the principal-agent theory in accounting for SADC’s inconsistent approach to Zimbabwe as from the year 2000 to 2013. It contends that the application of an inappropriate theoretical lens in previous studies is part of the reason why SADC’s approach to Zimbabwe’s challenges during the period under study remains poorly understood. Therefore, the research perspective unpacks the key tenets of the principal-agent theory and justifies its appropriateness as a framework for understanding SADC’s inconsistent approach to crisis management in Zimbabwe. This paper concludes that due to its emphasis on hierarchy, the principal-agent model provides perhaps the most appropriate theoretical lens for explaining the key dynamics behind SADC’s inconsistent approach to Zimbabwe’s issues from 2000 to 2013.</p> Fungayi Promote Maraire Azizuddin Mohd bin Sani Mohd Darwinda Siti Binti Pero Mohamed Copyright (c) 2024 Fungayi Promote Maraire, Azizuddin Mohd bin Sani Mohd, Darwinda Siti Binti Pero Mohamed 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 2 2 81 98