Journal of Applied Research and Multidisciplinary Studies 2023-12-06T07:46:16+00:00 Dr. Khansa Masood Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Applied Research and Multidisciplinary Studies (JARMS) is an open access, bi-annual, double-blind peer-reviewed journal published by the School of Professional Advancement, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan.&nbsp;</p> Examining Financial Decision-Making of Retail Investors in Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX): Moderating Role of Financial Literacy 2023-12-06T04:32:32+00:00 Muhammad Rehman Shafique Aamir Sohail Shoaib Nisar Muhammad Munir <p>This research aims to investigate the critical factors that affect the financial decision-making of retail investors in Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX), with a focus on the moderating role of financial literacy. This information is crucial to understand the behavior of retail investors which can help financial institutions and market regulators to develop effective strategies to educate and guide investors.&nbsp; A quantitative research approach was employed to conduct this study. A sample of retail investors who invested in PSX was selected. Data was collected using a simple random sampling technique. After evaluating the missing values, 365 responses were considered for the final analysis. Smart-PLS was used for analyzing both the measurement model (used to analyze the validity and reliability of data) and the structural model (used to test the hypothesis). In the current study, a higher-order construct approach was adopted to evaluate the reflective-formative indicators of factors affecting the financial decision-making of retail investors. The results revealed that all exogenous variables have a significant influence on the financial decisions of retail investors in the PSX. As per the empirical findings, financial literacy moderates the relationship between exogenous and endogenous variables. The results would be useful for policymakers, financial regulators, and investment firms in designing effective financial education programs and investment products that meet the needs and preferences of retail investors in PSX.</p> 2023-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Rehman Shafique , Aamir Sohail, Dr. Shoaib Nisar Adoption of Sustainable Development Goals in the Banking Sector Concerning the Risk of Banks 2023-12-06T07:16:29+00:00 Saba Iqbal Safia Nosheen <p>The proposal of sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the United Nations has motivated the banks to implement sustainability practices for sustainable banking and long-term survival. Besides analyzing the impact of these SDGs on the financial performance of the banks, analysis of relationship between the SDGs and the risk of the banks has also been considered vital to see the future uncertainty position. Therefore, the current study fills the gap by investigating SDGs link with the risk of banks especially concerning the Asia Pacific region. The main hypothesis of this study is to analyze the impact of the adoption of SDGs on the risk of the banks. The economic, social, and environmental indicators proposed by the UN’s statistical division are measured by SDGs. For this purpose, a variable ESE index was constructed in this study Furthermore, a partial equilibrium model was constructed to see the moderating impact of bank size and the ESE index. Panel data from 45 banks were collected from the Asia Pacific region. Data was analyzed through two-step system GMM technique. A separate analysis of economic, social, and environmental indicators were also deployed to study the impact of risks of banks in sustainable banking. First it gives insight that adoption of SDGs is important for risk reduction. Secondly large banks must be vigilant in the adoption of SDG as this adoption does not significantly minimize the risk in large banks.. ESE index construction is the novelty of this study.</p> 2023-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Saba Iqbal, Safia Nosheen Influence of Workplace Environment and Participative Decision- Making on Job Loyalty of Banking Employees: Determining the Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction 2023-12-06T07:23:03+00:00 Farhan Sarwar Tehreem Anjum Bilal Abassi <p>The current study attempted to discuss the significance of employee loyalty and its impact on a company's success. Employee loyalty plays an essential role for low turnover rates, enhanced productivity, and improved customer service. The current study aimed to explore the mediating role of job satisfaction and employee loyalty in the banking sector in Pakistan's service industry. A survey was conducted to gather the data from the banking sector which constituted population of this study. The statistics were investigated by using SPSS and Smart PLS. By analyzing the data, the study established that participative decision-making is positively related to job satisfaction, whereas workplace environment has an insignificant relationship with job satisfaction. Additionally, job satisfaction was found to be a significant intervening variable with a positive relationship to employee loyalty. The findings revealed that when employees experience high levels of satisfaction with their work, they are far more inclined to exhibit firm loyalty to their employers. The current paper explored factors, such as a supportive work environment and fair compensation that contribute to employee loyalty. Moreover, it also investigated the role of job satisfaction and identified intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing loyalty and commitment. The study also highlighted the crucial role played by employee loyalty to determine a company's success. Organizations should recognize that fostering employee loyalty leads to several benefits. At the same time, it also establishes job satisfaction as a mediating factor between participative decision-making and employee loyalty, highlighting the fact that employees who have a significant level of job satisfaction are more inclined to demonstrate strong loyalty towards their employers.</p> 2023-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Farhan Sarwar, Tehreem Anjum, Bilal Abassi Digitization and Labor Market: A Case Study of Middle-Income Countries 2023-12-06T07:29:23+00:00 Muhammad Ali Abrar Abid Raza Azmat hayat <p>The current study attempts to find the answers to critical concepts concerning the effect of digitalization on labor market in middle-income nations. It combines internet use and broadband subscriptions as explanatory variables to better understand digitalization. The study included five control variables to eliminate biases caused by the omitted variables. Rate of fertility, urban population proportion, female literateness, public<br>expenditure as a GDP%, and GDP growth are used as control variables. To estimate the links between labor market and digitalization, the current study used ordinary least square (OLS) regression approach. The use of the internet and broadband subscriptions as indices of digitalization are used in this study. The study chooses 5 groups of economies were selected from the mid-income countries. The dataset is longitudinal, consisting of 89<br>countries for a 23-year period from 1995-2018. Hausman test is used to determine whether to adopt random effects or fixed effects model. The results showed that for groups 1, 3, 4, and 5, fixed effect proved to be a<br>better model for both internet usage and broadband. The exception is group 2, where random effect model is a better fit for both the variables. The primary variable of interest, namely the log of internet usage, is found to be significant and positively correlated with the female labor force participation rates for groups 1, 4, and 5. However, it has showed a negative value for groups 2 and 3.One key novel finding of this study is that this<br>holds for all the group of countries, thereby indicating that broadband provision helps to increase female labor force participation rates irrespective of the structure of society or income levels.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Ali Abrar, Abid Raza, Azmat hayat Impact of Workplace Bullying on Patient’s Quality-of-Care Services: A HealthCare Sector Perspective 2023-12-06T07:33:45+00:00 Irfan Sabir Muhammad Bilal Majid Muhammad Zia Aslam <p>The current study aimed to measure the impact of nurse’s workplace bullying on patient’s quality of care with the mediating role of workplace deviance. The data was gathered from nurses in primary healthcare hospitals in Sahiwal and Faisalabad divisions of Punjab, Pakistan. The sample size was taken from a population comprising 1255 nurses through Krejcie and Morgan calculation formula and the final sample size was<br>based on 254 nurses. Statistical analysis was performed through SPSS (v- 26) software. Constructs reliability and validity were analyzed through Cronbach’s alpha value which was above 0.90. The results confirmed that<br>workplace bullying has a significant positive influence on workplace deviance and workplace deviance has significant negative influence on patient’s quality-of-care. Moreover, workplace bullying has a negative influence on patient’s quality-of-care and workplace deviance mediates the relationship between workplace bullying and patient’s quality-of-care.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Irfan Sabir, Muhammad Bilal Majid; Muhammad Zia Aslam Impacts of Safety Management Practices on Project Success in Punjab: Safety Policy as Moderator and Safety Performance as Mediator 2023-08-22T10:44:05+00:00 Muhammad Sajid Aamir Shahzad Nayab Mufti Zohaib Rizwan Ali <p>Even though safety management is considered to be a critical factor in the construction industry due to the high rate of accidents and injuries, the lack of safety management practices (SMPs) had always been a serious issue in the construction sector of Pakistan. In addition, other factors like safety policy and safety performance also influence the project’s success. The current study brought clarity to the assessment of the relationship of SMPs on project success by addressing moderation and mediation of safety training, safety meeting, safety communication, and safety inspection. A quantitative research strategy was employed to obtain the data from 231 safety and engineering professionals belonging to the construction industry in Punjab, Pakistan. The collected data was examined by structural equational modeling (SEM) through the partial least squares method by using Smart PLS. The results indicated that four SMPs, namely safety training, safety meeting, safety communication, and safety inspection reflect safety performance. The study concluded that SMPs have a positive and significant influence on project success. When these four SMPs are mediated with safety performance, it shows partial mediation between safety performance and project success. Meanwhile, when these four SMPs are moderated with a safety policy, results indicate a moderate to strong relationship between different variables with safety inspection showing insignificant values. The results may be utilized by the safety and engineering professionals working in the construction sector to improve their safety and project performance significantly Moreover, it is a contribution to the advancement of safety performance and improvement in Pakistan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Sajid, Aamir Shahzad, Nayab Mufti Zohaib, Rizwan Ali Moderating Role of Employer Branding between Talent Acquisition, Talent Retention, and Banks’ Performance in Pakistan: Developing Countries’ Perspective 2023-12-06T07:46:16+00:00 Samra Tariq Raemah Abdullah Hashim Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid <p>The banking sector plays an important role in the growth and development of a country's economy. However, the sector's contribution to the growth and development of a country’s economy depends on its performance. It was found that Pakistan's banking sector is performing poorly as compared to the performance of the banking sectors of other neighbouring countries. The objective of the current study was to present a conceptual framework for the banking sector of developing economies, such as Pakistan with the goal of enhancing its performance. Literature indicated that through talent acquisition and talent retention, firms can achieve superior performance. Previous research found that talent acquisition and retention have a positive impact on a firm performance. Moreover, literature also indicated that the influence of talent acquisition and retention on a firm performance varies due to the employer's brand. Therefore, the current study proposed a conceptual framework to leverage the performance of the banking sector of Pakistan and examined how this relationship may vary when it interacts with employer branding. The conceptual framework would help to better understand the performance of the banking sector in the developing countries.</p> 2023-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Samra Tariq, Raemah Abdullah Hashim , Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Medical Students towards Evidence-Based Medicine in Private and Public Sector Medical Colleges of Peshawar, Pakistan 2023-09-01T11:45:03+00:00 Waqar Ali Jazza Jamil Muhammad Saud Sadiq Mashhood Alam Khan Abdur Rehman Ali Arif Khan Khushbakht Khalil <p>Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to a special and unique approach selected for an individual patient. It is prepared on the basis of patient’s current health condition, the latest available research, and clinical expertise. It starts with a clinical question at the level of care (for instance, nurse- patient encounter or physician-patient encounter). Afterwards, evidence is acquired by investigating the previous literature regarding the patient’ condition followed by the assessment of the quality of each evidence source. Subsequently, valid evidence is applied to patient’s treatment according to their preference. In order to identify the areas of improvement in the EBM implementation, medical students were surveyed in the city of Peshawar ,Pakistan regarding their knowledge and attitudes towards EBM practice. The current study followed a cross sectional research design which was carried out in two public medical colleges and two private medical colleges of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). The duration of this study was 3 months from the time period July-October 2021. Random sampling was performed with the involvement of 286 participants. Inclusion criteria for the current study was fourth year and final year medical students. The data for the current study was gathered through a self-reported questionnaire. The characteristics of 286 participants showed that 44.76% (n=128) were males, while 55.24% (n=158) were females. The response rate was 100%. Out of all the respondents, 79.9% had an excellent knowledge of EBM. About 12.65 % reported excellent attitude towards EBM and only 6.3% had an excellent practice of EBM. The most common barrier that was identified was lack of time and lack of role modeling. The current study determined that females had a better attitude towards EBM than males (p value &lt;0.5). Moreover, there was also a strong relationship between year of study of respondents and practice of EBM which was greater in final year students (p value &lt;0.5). Although, majority of the medical students of KPK had an excellent knowledge of EBM, only 6.3% of them had an excellent practice. Excellent knowledge regarding EBM does not necessarily show excellent attitude either. Overall, 78.67% of the respondents did have a good attitude towards EBM. The lack of practice can be due to the fact that only 8.1% of respondents strongly agreed that they had a clear understanding of EBM, proving that they know about EBM, however, are not fully aware of what it is. EBM should be integrated into the curriculum of the students for its application and incentives should be offered for undergraduates to develop an interest in it.</p> 2023-09-01T11:45:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Waqar Ali, Jazza Jamil, Muhammad Saud Sadiq, Mashhood Alam Khan, Abdur Rehman, Ali Arif Khan; Khushbakht Khalil Employing Sentiment Analysis to Enhance Customer Relationships for Mobile Phone Operators Working in Pakistan 2023-09-01T11:02:46+00:00 Imran Saleem Asad Jamil Mira Aamir Mehmood <p>Customer relationship management (CRM) is a process through which a company or organization manages its contacts and coordinates with customers, usually by analyzing vast volumes of data. CRM systems collect information from a variety of sources, such as a company's website, phone, email, live chat, marketing materials, and, more recently, social media. Active coordination with the customers is the key to improving the quality of service being provided by a business. Social media has been proven a great tool for accessing and awareness of public opinion regarding a particular topic and opinion forming.&nbsp; Thus, CRM enables organizations to gain a better understanding of their target audiences and how to best respond to their demands, resulting in client retention and sales growth. Sentiment analysis can be characterized as a qualitative approach to data mining that recognizes and separates subjective data as a source, to help an organization understand public opinion regarding the service and products it offers. In this study, Twitter data is analyzed to perform sentiment analysis, for enhancing the quality of service provided by Mobile Phone operators working in Pakistan. After the analysis, the produced results will be very helpful for the Mobile Phone Operators to make smart decisions for enhancing their Customer Relationship Management concerning quality-of-service improvement.</p> 2023-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Imran Saleem, Asad Jamil, Mira Aamir Mehmood Effect of Corporate Governance (CG) Practices on Financial Reporting Quality (FRQ); A Context of CEO Dismissal History 2023-10-13T06:20:50+00:00 Muhammad Nabeel Safdar Marria Hassan Saba Amin <p>The current study aimed to scrutinize the consequences of corporate-governance (CG) factors on the financial reporting quality (FRQ) for firms listed on Karachi-Stock-Exchange (KSE), Pakistan from the time period (2004-2021). The study only focused on non-financial firms of Pakistan. Moreover, 980 financial reports of 70 companies were investigated to determine the relationship between CG and FRQ. Moreover, the reasons behind increased incidences and considerable attention in the history of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) dismissals of different well-known companies were also investigated. McNichols’s model was used to determine the quality of financial reporting. However, few proxies were taken to measure the governance effect, board size, institutional shareholding, board independence, and board meeting frequencies. The current study used two-panel modelling methodology in which the first panel was constructed on a CG index with FRQ. Whereas, the second panel was constructed on individual proxies of CG. The study concluded that CG had a positive and significant impact on FRQ in which board size and board independence had an essential rule to present a better quality of FR.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Marria Hassan, Muhammad Nabeel Safdar, Saba Amin Language Anxiety among Jordanian EFL Learners during Public Speaking 2023-09-20T10:45:19+00:00 Alaa Abdullah Alsaleem Mohd Hilmi Hamzah <p>The current research attempted to explore how Jordanian EFL learners perceive their English public speaking anxiety. The study applied qualitative methodology via interviews. The research subjects comprised of six Jordanian postgraduate EFL learners (PhD students) selected from four public universities in Malaysia. The findings illustrated that the attitudes and motivation of Jordanian EFL learners play an important role in determining their English public speaking anxiety. More precisely, attitude and motivation negatively influenced Jordanians’ English public speaking anxiety.</p> 2023-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Alaa Alsaleem Exploring the Relationship Between Board structure and Firm Performance using Meta-Analysis: Moderating Role of Firm Age and Firm Size 2023-10-09T07:57:01+00:00 Maria Adil Muhammad Mudasar Ghafoor Muhammad Mobeen Shafqat Yasin Munir Ghulam Murtaza salman naseer <p>The current research on Corporate Governance (CG) focused mainly on the linkage between board structure and Firm Performance (FP). This meta-analysis aimed to examine the connection between board structure and financial performance, as well as the moderating impact of firm age and size on the link between board structure and performance. A set of 228 effect sizes reported in 50 research studies published between 2015 and 2020 in 47 peer-reviewed publications, exploring board and performance correlations across 22 nations, was analyzed by using the meta-analysis approach proposed by Hedges and Olkin (2014). The analyses were performed in two stages. Firstly, the key effect of board characteristics was determined on FP and was checked for effect size heterogeneity across primary studies. Afterwards, the moderating effect of firm-specific characteristics was explored on this relationship. The results of this meta-analysis revealed that the impact of board structure on FP was influenced by the age and size of the firm. The findings specifically indicated that as compared to older and larger firms, younger and smaller enterprises exhibited a stronger effect of board structure on FP. Additionally, the study also explored particular board structure traits that, depending on firm age and size, had distinctive effects on company performance. Only empirical studies reporting correlation coefficients and regression coefficients as the effect sizes were included in the current research. Subgroup analysis was not performed due to limited time and resources. The current research added to the body of knowledge by carefully examining the findings of previously published studies and by proposing a single statistical value that represents the significant role of the board in FP. Moreover, the study also provided valuable insights that may help the regulators, Board of Directors (BODs), and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) to make informed decisions in order to improve CG practices and FP.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Adil , Muhammad Mudasar Ghafoor, Muhammad Mobeen Shafqat, Yasin Munir, Ghulam Murtaza, salman naseer How Government Support Programs Enhance SMEs’ Dynamic Capabilities and Digitalization: An Investigation of Common Facility Center Program 2023-11-03T11:03:27+00:00 Ambreen Zaineb Awan Khurram Shahzad <p>Amidst the increasing attention from governments and policymakers on small and medium enterprise (SME) support programs, a notable gap exists in the academic literature regarding understanding of the effects of support programs and the process through which SEMs leverage government support to achieve competitiveness in the digital context of industry 4.0. Grounded in the dynamic capability theory, this study sets out to explore the pivotal role of the Common Facility Centre (CFC) support program in catalyzing SMEs' digital transformation, with a specific focus on the mediating influence of firm reconfiguration capabilities. To test hypotheses, the data was collected from 202 user SMEs using a self-administered survey questionnaire, employing a multi-time and multi-source approach. The findings indicate that CFC support program significantly enhances SMEs' digital transformation, and firms’ reconfiguration capability is a strong mediating mechanism for this effect to take place.&nbsp;</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ambreen Zaineb Awan, Khurram Shahzad