Journal of Communication and Cultural Trends <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Communication and Cultural Trends (JCCT) is a bi-annual, double-blind, peer-reviewed, open-access journal, edited by the editorial board of the journal. The <strong>JCCT</strong> mainly addresses the research articles under the domains of English (American and Asian) Literature, Applied Linguistics, Linguistics, TESOL, ELT, Intercultural Communication, etc.</p> Department of Linguistics and Communication, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Journal of Communication and Cultural Trends 2706-9141 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. </a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> World Englishes in English Language Teaching Textbook of Public Primary Schools <p style="text-align: justify;">There is a dearth of research on English textbook analysis with respect to World Englishes in Punjab, Pakistan. The current study aimed to identify the nouns used in English textbooks at primary level with a major focus on Pakistani English (PakE). The data for this qualitative research was collected from English Textbook of Grade 5, published by PCTB (Punjab Curriculum Textbook Board). The current study employed Kachru’s three concentric circle model comprising of inner, outer, and expanding circles to analyse the data. The findings depicted that most of the vocabulary used in this textbook was derived from South Asian Englishes (SAmE) and common Standard British English (SBrE), which are norm-providing countries. The authors obtained lexemes from these standardised varieties of English. However, the presence of PakE variety equals the use of SAmE which apparently shows that Pakistanis are creating their own vocabulary which they are unaware of. The current study would help the authors of English textbooks and policy-makers to determine which variety of English they should focus on, with the aim of using it consistently.</p> Zehra Batool Humaira Irfan Farwa Qazalbash Copyright (c) 2023 Zehra Batool, Humaira Irfan, Farwa Qazalbash 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 5 2 01 22 10.32350/jcct.52.01 Impact of English Language Imperialism on Pakistani Learners’ Psychology <p style="text-align: justify;">In the course of the past few years,&nbsp;English language has acquired uncommon consideration in Pakistan. In the progression of this momentum, students have embarked on learning and communicating in English at the cost of dismissing their native language, that is, Urdu. The current study attempted to discuss the dominance of English language and its consequences on the psychology of learners. This study addressed the question of whether students perceive English language imperialism as a threat to their national language, Urdu. The current study is quantitative in nature. A sample size comprising 100 participants was selected and those learners were studying in undergraduate and graduate programs at Kinnaird College for Women Lahore, Minhaj University, and the University of Punjab, Lahore. A self-constructed questionnaire was utilized to gather the information. Moreover, an investigation was undertaken on the impacts of the independent variable namely English language imperialism on the dependent variable namely students' psychology. The results indicated a notable interconnection among various psychological factors, collectively exerting a significant influence on student’s psychological well-being. Since they consider it a sign of accomplishment in their academic and professional careers.</p> Tania Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Tania Khan 2023-09-04 2023-09-04 5 2 23 48 10.32350/jcct.52.02 Linguistic Inventiveness, Creativity, and Variation in Taufiq Rafat’s Poems: A Stylistic Study <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study attempted to analyze the poetic style of Taufiq Rafat. The study focused on Rafat's poetic originality, uniqueness, and grammatical inconsistencies. The qualitative, analytical, and theoretical aspects of this research were analyzed as well. In order to properly and efficiently conduct the study, only a handful of Rafat's poems were selected for analysis and the concentration remained solely on lexical level. The investigation focused on few specific poems of Rafat including Village Girl, Classmate, A Middle-Class Drawing Room, and Once Upon a Time. &nbsp;Leech and Short (<a href="#Leech_1981"><u>1981</u></a>) models were used to comprehend Rafat's style and how expertly and artistically he handles language to accomplish his objectives and expectations. For academics interested in linguistic and stylistic analysis along with language element identification in any literary text, especially Rafat's poetry, this study is crucial. The study concluded that Rafat used relatively identical stylistic elements. Although, some similarity in the basic form of the poems resulted to deviations and innovations in a few verses while reflecting distinctive and diverse, different and unique&nbsp;meanings along with interpretations&nbsp;in each of his poems.</p> Muhammad Haroon Jakhrani Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Haroon Jakhrani 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 5 2 49–69 49–69 10.32350/jcct.52.03 Tone Recognition of Pahari Language <p style="text-align: justify;">Pahari is an under-resourced, endangered, and undocumented tonal language, spoken in Pakistan Administered State of the Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Preliminary studies have established the notion, that the Pahari language has three discrete level tones; high, mid, and low. In the current study, tone distribution in monosyllabic words is measured with 45 iterations consisting of 15 high, 15 mid, and 15 low tones, collected from 5 native speakers of Pahari language. An attempt has been made to automatically recognize the phonologically contrastive tones in Pahari language, by using the Random Forest and the Linear Mixed Effect Models with f0 as a preliminary feature along with duration, intensity, F1, F3, and (Cepstral Peak Prominence) CPP. The results showed that the overall accuracy of the Random Forest was higher than the accuracy of the linear mixed effect model. Additionally, the mean f0 played a highly significant role in the prediction of tone while duration, intensity, F1, F3, and CPP played a less significant role.</p> Salma Asghar Uzma Anjum Urooj Akhter Copyright (c) 2023 Salma Asghar, Uzma Anjum, Urooj Akhter 2023-09-27 2023-09-27 5 2 70–99 70–99 10.32350/jcct.52.04 A Minimalist Perspective of Interrogatives in the Punjabi Language <p style="text-align: justify;">Chomsky’s Theory of Universal Grammar (UG) (<a href="#Chomsky1993"><u>1993</u></a>, <a href="#Chomsky1995"><u>1995</u></a>) incorporates some universal principles for grammatical descriptions of all possible human languages. It is because all aspects of human languages may not be universal; this theory also offers some parameters through which languages may vary from one to another. The Minimalist Program (MP) (Chomsky, <a href="#Chomsky1993"><u>1993</u></a>) as a part of UG follows minimalist principles such as the principle of economy, the principle of uniformity, and the search for simplicity, which guide the creation of grammatical rules and representations. The current study analysed the interrogative sentences in Punjabi to determine the similarities between Punjabi and English by using the Minimalist Program (MP) as a theoretical framework. Almost all Punjabi dialects or Standard Punjabi published in the academic context provide many ways to express interrogation. Two common types of interrogative sentences analysed here include yes-no questions and wh-questions which are also called <em>k-</em>questions<em>&nbsp;</em>in Punjabi because they start with a <em>k </em>sound, for instance, <em>kitthe </em>(where)<em>, kinj </em>(how)<em>, kaunN </em>(why)<em>, kii </em>(what), etc, have been analysed. The analysis showed that there is no obligatory movement, either in the case of yes-no questions or in wh-movement in Punjabi, such as in English. Similarly, unlike English, there is neither the movement of auxiliaries nor of any other word in any interrogative sentence. Furthermore, the study concluded that the analysis of the Punjabi language through minimalism is possible and, therefore, it is implied that Punjabi follows the proposed principle of Universal Grammar.</p> Hafiz Nauman Ahmed Iqra Hanif Asim Aqeel Copyright (c) 2023 Hafiz Nauman Ahmed, Iqra Hanif, Asim Aqeel 2023-09-28 2023-09-28 5 2 100–119 100–119 10.32350/jcct.52.05 Evaluating the English Language Courses for Engineers in Pakistan Using an ESP Approach <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study attempted to evaluate the English language courses taught in engineering universities for prospective engineers in Pakistan. A syllabus for any degree or certificate, especially professional degrees, provides a road map for learners. Therefore, most of the students with professional degrees including engineering, think that there is no need to waste their energy on subjects that are not directly related to their profession. Resultantly, the subject of English could not take the prime position in the engineering universities in Pakistan. Therefore, in the current study both the questionnaires and interviews were set consisting of three categories. The first category of sample comprised of 50 male and female students who have completed at least one course of English mostly from Lahore based universities. The second category of sample was taken from twenty English language teachers from other two universities in Lahore and the third category of sample was taken from twenty professional engineers in Pakistan. The study is significant as it attempted to evaluate the existing syllabus of Pakistani engineering universities as the syllabus of engineering in Pakistan is at par with the syllabuses provided by organizations of international standards, such as &nbsp;IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The results showed that the syllabus designed for engineering students was not sufficient to meet their professional needs. In this regard, the study may also be helpful for the committee of curriculum revision constituted by the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan.</p> Azhar Pervaiz Kaynat KhudaDad Copyright (c) 2023 Azhar Pervaiz, Kaynat KhudaDad 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 5 2 120–140 120–140 10.32350/jcct.52.06