Journal of Communication and Cultural Trends https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Communication and Cultural Trends (JCCT) is a bi-annual, double-blind, peer-reviewed, open-access journal, edited by the editorial board of the journal. The <strong>JCCT</strong> mainly addresses the research articles under the domains of English (American and Asian) Literature, Applied Linguistics, Linguistics, TESOL, ELT, Intercultural Communication, etc.</p> en-US <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. </a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> editorjcct@umt.edu.pk (Dr. Arshad Ali Khan) jcct@umt.edu.pk (Zujajah Khursheed) Mon, 13 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Schematizing Societal Problems in Namibian Novels: A Case Study of The Other Presence and The Hopeless Hopes https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2155 <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research presents a cognitive stylistics study of two Namibian novels: Francis Sifiso Nyathi’s <em>The Other Presence</em>&nbsp;and Salom Shilongo’s <em>The Hopeless Hopes</em>. These novels were selected because they present societal problems specific to Namibia from two different perspectives. The study also argues that only a few such Namibian novels have been investigated via conceptualising cognitive stylistics. The researchers have raised three fundamental questions: How does cognitive metaphor help explicate psychological hitches as captured creatively in the two novels? What is the mind’s contribution in conceptualising and comprehending contextual meanings in the two novels? How does content schema contribute to the understanding of the two novels? It is, therefore, against the backdrop of these three questions that the two novels were purposefully selected and studied. Conceptualising and implementing the cognitive metaphor, the current study also analyses the root causes of societal problems, such as unemployment, unfair treatment of people, HIV/AIDS, and witchcrafts, prevailing in the Namibian social fabric. In <em>The Other Presence,</em>&nbsp;it is the HIV/AIDS which is &nbsp;referred &nbsp;to &nbsp;as <em>the other presence</em>. Shilongo’s <em>The Hopeless Hopes</em>&nbsp;also reveals how Robert and the other fellow Namibian ex-combatants gathered at a Big House in Windhoek to hand over their petition to Honourable Zopa. It indicates clearly that the State House is being contextualised as a Big House in the novel, while the ‘Founding Father’ and the former president of the country Honourable Sam Nuyoma is referred to as Honourable Zopa. The contextual meaning of the selected novels can thus only be understood if the readers of these novels have a general background knowledge of the Namibian society. Within a cognitive stylistics theoretical framework, the study also follows a schema theory to explain mental problems and contextual meanings. It manifests how a cognitive stylistics approach to Namibian novels can advance the literary understanding of the multiplicities of themes, such as culture, taboo, superstition, unemployment, colonialism, corruption, and mental health.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong>&nbsp;cognitive metaphor, cognitive stylistics, content schema, contextual meanings, mental problems, schema theory</p> Linus Nghilifavali Hafeni , Haileleul Zeleke Woldemariam Copyright (c) 2022 Haileleul Zeleke Woldemariam https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2155 Mon, 13 Jun 2022 10:17:17 +0000 Ethical Dilemma Created by Media Circulation of the Graphic Images of Child Refugees: A Case Study of Aylan Kurdi https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2227 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study examines the coverage of the iconic graphic images of children (who died an unnatural death) in the media, particularly in newspapers. Precisely, it focuses on an iconic graphic image of Aylan Kurdi, the three-year-old Syrian boy who was drowned and whose body was washed up on a beach in Turkey, while his family was attempting to reach Greece. The circulation of this image in the media and how it has been presented in different newspapers is the subject of the current study. The researchers discuss the possibility of publishing this photo in newspapers in relation to the Codes of Ethics of SPJ. The findings reveal that the photo of Aylan Kurdi changed the world’s point of view about the Syrian refugee crisis. They also signify the fact that it is important to provide appropriate context to the graphic images circulating in the print media.&nbsp;Indeed, the context written under the images published in newspapers and the one that circulates in the media are significant because it hails a large number of audience.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: iconic graphic images, media, newspapers, portrayal, refugees</p> Reem Adib Lulu, Sohayle M. Hadji Abdul Racman, Monaimah Gubat-Manabilang Copyright (c) 2022 Reem Adib Lulu, Sohayle M. Hadji Abdul Racman, Monaimah Gubat-Manabilang https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2227 Mon, 13 Jun 2022 10:50:00 +0000 Politeness or Submissiveness: Gender Dichotomy in Everyday Interactions within the Ndebele Society in Zimbabwe https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2708 <p style="text-align: justify;">In the traditional Ndebele society of Zimbabwe, there is a&nbsp;marked asymmetry of knowledge&nbsp;and authority between men, women, and children. It implies a difference in the application of negative and positive politeness by them based on their traditionally assigned gender roles. Hence, this study demonstrates how gender roles and relations within the Ndebele society influence the forms and functions of politeness used in daily interactions. The analysis was conducted by using the politeness theory as the theoretical framework, which proclaims that communication is a way that structures social relations. Personal and participant observations were used as sources of data collection. The research revealed that the forms and functions of politeness used in daily interactions within the Ndebele society are influenced by the formal and socially distant relationships between men, women, and children. In this regard, politeness conventions were determined by analyzing the norms, values, and particular power structures of the Ndebele society. Moreover, it was also found that gender dichotomy is developed from an early age and the “I” holds the power dynamics in relationships. So, it was concluded that the forms and functions of politeness in the Ndebele society are determined by one’s position in it. Furthermore, this position implicitly represents the social and power relations within the society, maintaining a patriarchal social structure and habitus. In this respect, the submissiveness of women towards their husbands shows the set pattern of the patriarchal society and its expectations from a woman.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;</em>gender roles, patriarchy, negative politeness, politeness, positive politeness, submissiveness</p> Soneni Matandare Copyright (c) 2022 Matandare Soneni https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2708 Mon, 13 Jun 2022 11:13:23 +0000 Representation of Women: A Corpus-based Analysis of Pakistani English Newspapers https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2929 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigated the use of gendered lexical items and collocates with the help of corpus tools to deconstruct the patriarchal social system of Pakistan. Media frames the mind and thought process of people with its repetitive announcements. Women, being a part of the society, are also represented in news; however, matters related to them are underreported by reporters and editors, as most of the news is male-filtered. Pakistani English newspapers are among the popular sources of information dissemination across Pakistan. The local social system and male-dominated mindset influence all types of media in Pakistan. Hence, it has been observed that akin to all other fields of life, women are marginalized in Pakistani English newspapers. So, this study hypothesized that men are over represented as compared to women and news reports relevant to women are written by female&nbsp;writers and reporters. To test the above hypothesis, a corpus of 270 Pakistani English newspaper articles was selected from The News International, The Dawn, and Daily Times, with 90 articles from each paper. A corpus-based analysis was carried out to trace gender discrimination and gender stereotypes in Pakistani society. All collocates of women/woman and man/men were kept in view in this work. The results showed that women are represented in the news as a minority and marginalized by the male-dominated society, despite the fact that modern writers have raised their voices to support and highlight the role of women in the society. This study is a first attempt of its kind for being an amalgam of corpus-based and CDA approaches.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;</em>corpus-driven analysis, marginalized, minority, newspapers, representation, women</p> Salma Asghar, Urooj Akhter Copyright (c) 2022 Salma Asghar, Urooj Akhter https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2929 Wed, 31 Aug 2022 06:20:57 +0000 Serial Verb Constructions (SVCs) in Nzema: A Descriptive Analysis https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2585 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper discusses the serial verb constructions (SVCs) in Nzema, a Southern Bia (Kwa) language. It&nbsp;draws on some of the characteristics and properties surveyed in the literature, such as subject/object sharing, tense, aspect, and negation. Moreover, it also discusses the types and functions of SVCs in Nzema&nbsp;and analyses the notions of tense, aspect, and polarity, as well as how they are marked in Nzema SVCs. Most of the data used in the analysis was taken from the daily conversations of native speakers. Four native speakers of Nzema acted as respondents in this study. It shows that Nzema SVCs are of the types explored in the literature as clause chaining, integrated, and “concordial”. Serial verb patterns are used to add the argument, such as an instrument or a beneficiary. Future markers appear before the verbs, while past markers occur after the verbs. In the same vein, progressive aspect markers occur before the verbs. Moreover, tense and aspect marking is repeated on all the verbs in the series. Regarding argument sharing, the object is shared only when the verbs in the series are transitive.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords</strong>: </em>argument sharing, clause chaining serialization, concordial serial verb, integrated serial verb construction, serial verbs</p> John Nyame, Cecilia Tomekyin Copyright (c) 2022 John Nyame, Cecilia Tomekyin https://journals.umt.edu.pk/index.php/jcct/article/view/2585 Tue, 30 Aug 2022 05:53:43 +0000