Linguistics and Literature Review (LLR) 2019-12-31T13:11:38+01:00 Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">Linguistics and Literature Review (LLR) is a peer reviewed Journal. It seeks to aid in strengthening national and international scholarship in the fields of linguistics and literature.</p> A Reappreciation of Cannibal Translation as Critique of Ideology 2019-12-31T13:08:10+01:00 Alexandre Dubé-Belzile <p>Cultural hegemony has been widely discussed within the field of Translation Studies. However, few scholars proposed a method of political action to erase the thumbprint of hegemony found in many translated works. In my opinion, the concept of “cannibal translation” developed by Haroldo de Campos is an exception (De Campos &amp; Wolff, 1986). This form of translation is a way to regain control over the meaning of existing discourses and of the systems of representations that govern our daily lives. This paper will rely on a strong theoretical background, in order to argue for the realization of a form of militancy within the boundaries of the systems of representations of language itself, in order to stop seeing the world with the “imperial eyes” (Mary Snell-Hornby, 2006) of cultural hegemony, namely of English tongue and culture in Canada and its industries in Colombia. Finally, I will approach militant translation as a method of “ideological criticism,” as understood by Slavoj Žižek. who defines ideology as a “unconscious fantasy that structures social reality” (García &amp; Sánchez, 2008).</p> 2019-10-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Linguistics and Literature Review (LLR) Shadow of the Father 2019-12-31T13:09:03+01:00 Isma Tariq <p>This paper aims at exploring the symptoms of Electra complex in Benazir Bhutto through her autobiography Daughter of the East (1988). As developed by Freud, psychoanalysis provides an insight into the conflicts that are believed to lie at the roots of people’s problems. His discovery of the unconscious mind led him to believe that all dreams, jokes, slips of tongues, thoughts, behavior and action have hidden meanings, and suggest the psychic structures of the mind shape the personality. The researcher uses this theory to explore the symptoms of Electra complex in Benazir’s personality. This paper proves that Daughter of the East contains evidence of certain symptoms which prove that Benazir suffered from Electra complex. Specific strategies of narratological analysis are selected for analyzing and interpreting textual evidence. This paper throws light on the deep-seated anxieties that exerted continuous pressure on Benazir’s mind. Through this analysis, the researcher has found symptoms of Electra complex in Benazir Bhutto. Benazir was so deeply in love with her father that she was unable to focus on her own life in her autobiography. She was obsessed with her love for her father and revered him as a saint. Benazir even developed a sense of competition with her siblings for the love of her father. The researcher argues that Benazir recreated her traumatic past, her father’s images, and his memories by writing her autobiography.</p> 2019-10-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Machiavelli 2019-12-31T13:09:55+01:00 Nick Ceramella <p>During the Elizabethan Age, the Machiavellian character developed to become one of the key dramatic types: a rascal and a harsh calculator. Edward Meyer, in his Machiavelli and the Elizabethan Drama, indicated that there were about 400 direct references to Machiavelli in the Elizabethan literature. A case in point is Marlowe's The Jew Of Malta where he has Machiavel to open the play. To the Tudor imagination, Machiavelli was the symbol of corruption and decadence driven by an insatiable “appetite” for power. But I argue that it was not as simple as that. One has the impression they had hardly read him, or, in the best of cases, misunderstood him. Indeed, it was not until Bacon and Hobbes, whose political thought agreed with Machiavelli’s attack on religion, that some light was thrown on the founder of modern political science. So that, by the late eighteenth century, a more favourable judgement became popular. Then with the growth of romantic nationalism, they discovered that Machiavelli’ s The Prince was not a dangerous guide for political criminals, but an objective study of sixteenth century Italian politics by a patriot hoping to help his country to unite and become a strong presence in Europe. Be that as it may, thanks to drama, Machiavelli entered the consciousness of the Anglo-Saxon secular world, but it expanded beyond it all over Europe. In the twentieth century, Antonio Gramsci (the first secretary of the Italian Communist Party) saw in Machiavelli a politician comparable to Marx. Unexpectedly, Mussolini wrote a sympathetic introductory essay to an edition of The Prince, though he had previously banned the philosopher’s writings. But even more surprisingly, Rauschning recounts that in his conversations with Hitler, the Fürher ranked Machiavelli with Wagner as among the influences shaping his thought. Hence, just like scholars, political leaders confront many contradictory interpretations according to their personal moral views, emotions, and conveniences. To this day, the Florentine’s legacy has provoked almost uninterrupted controversy and there is little consensus about what Machiavelli actually said. Yet, we still live in his shadow. He is even seen as some sort of guide for the unscrupulous modern manager, while Tupac, a popular American rapper, charmed by his writings, called himself Makaveli. Meanwhile, the “vices” Machiavelli denounced: political instability, social disillusion, corruption, intrigue, immorality, and riots, still permeate political life in Italy and elsewhere. Therefore, on concluding, I would like to stress how he speak to us not only of old far-off events but also, and memorably, of familiar matters of today.</p> 2019-10-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Linguistics and Literature Review (LLR) Semiotic Representation of Gender in Google Emojis 2019-12-31T13:10:45+01:00 Nazia Kalsoom Sadia Kalsoom <p>Modern technology has undoubtedly changed the way we communicate. Emoji is the latest development that crosses all language barriers and serves as a global language. The present study seeks to investigate how gender is semiotically represented in Google female emojis. The study is interpretive and qualitative in nature. By using Kress &amp; Leeuwen (2006) the Grammar of Visual Design model, the study analyzed the stereotypical and professional (newly introduced) Google emojis for female and attempted to spot the tenets of liberal feminist movement. The revision of emojis by Google, with a belief that ‘this will empower young women and better reflect the pivotal roles women play in the world’ bespeaks the flourishing global liberal feminist movement. This acknowledgement is a feather in liberal feminist movement’s cap in that gender roles are considered social constructs. The new emojis duly construct women as coming out of the stereotypical womanish stuff and entering into professions that were once male-dominant.</p> 2019-10-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Linguistics and Literature Review (LLR) A Corpus-Based Halliday’s Transitivity Analysis of ‘To the Lighthouse’ 2019-12-31T13:11:38+01:00 Um-e- Ammara Rehana Yasmin Anjum Maryiam Javed <p>This study explores transitivity in the novel “To the Lighthouse” (1927) by Virginia Woolfs as one of the methods of clause analysis in the ideational meta-function of language. The transitivity analysis was carried out by using AntConc 3.5.7 corpus analysis tool software, through which the text of the novel was first tagged and then analysed. This was clause analysis and all the types of processes, participants and circumstances were investigated. The research is for language researchers to analyse and interpret text of different genres of literature.</p> 2019-10-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Linguistics and Literature Review (LLR)