Linguistics and Literature Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Linguistics and Literature Review (LLR) is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal published by the University of Management and Technology a leading university in Pakistan. Various international indexing and abstracting agencies cite the journal.</p> Department of Linguistics and Communications (DLC), Institute of Liberal Arts (ILA), University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US Linguistics and Literature Review 2409-109X <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. </a>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Morphosyntactic Analysis of Suffixation in Lasi and Sindhi <p style="text-align: justify;">Lasi is one of the minor languages of Pakistan, although widely spoken in Lasbela, Balochisan. It is a dialect of Sindhi (Zahid, A., <a href="#Zahid">2016</a>; Ali, et al., <a href="#Alietal">2021</a>; Veesar &amp; Mustafa, <a href="#Veesar2021">2021</a>). The current research aims to describe and analyse the properties of suffixation in Lasi nouns, verbs, and adjectives, in comparison with standard Sindhi. The research is qualitative and uses descriptive and analytical research designs. Data were collected through informal conversation (unstructured interviews) with the native speakers of Lasi, further reproduced and translated into Sindhi via Sindhi speakers for the purpose of comparison with standard Sindhi. The analysis showed differences between the two varieties. It was found that Lasi and Sindhi differ from each other in the use of postpositional suffixes: Sindhi uses a separate postpositional word to show the position, while Lasi uses them with nouns, such as ‘m’, ‘k’, ‘t’. These varieties also differ in the use of suffixation for the formation of the oblique forms of nouns. The research also explored the similarities between the two languages, such that no difference was found in the use of suffixes in Lasi and Sindhi in making the plural form of both masculine and feminine nouns. It was also found that both languages use ‘yun’ suffix to pluralize feminine nouns and ‘aa’ sound for making masculine nouns.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords</strong>:</em> inflectional morphemes, Lasi, morphemes, suffixation, Sindhi</p> Abdul Rasheed Zahid Ali Shahida Copyright (c) 2022 Abdul Rasheed, Zahid Ali, Shahida 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 8 2 10.32350/llr.82/01 Investigating Hybridity in “AMERICANAH” by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie <p style="text-align: justify;">Mixing of cultures is common in the contemporary world and this phenomenon causes cultural, racial, and linguistic hybridity. Hybridity affects human beings. Migrants confront abusive behavior due to cultural hybridity. Hence, the concept of cultural hybridity is explored in this article. This study analyzes the novel "Americanah" by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, through the lens of the ‘Theory of Hybridity’ presented by Homi. K. Bhabha. The analyzed novel is about an Afro-American, Ifemelu, who feels hesitant to adopt both cultures. The current study displays Ifemelu’s dilemma of choosing between her friends or lover in America. It is a descriptive and text-based study and makes an attempt to answer how cultural hybridity affects the protagonist’s life. The conclusion sums up that Ifemelu’s character suffers from identity crisis and marginalization due to cultural hybridity. The study verifies the negative effects of cultural hybridity that are the core assertion of the theory of Bhabha.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords: </strong></em>Hybridity, mimicry, third world, Post-colonial, ambivalence, Identity crisis, Homi Bhaba</p> Sarah Shamshad Asad Ali Hashmi Copyright (c) 2022 Sarah Shamshad, Asad Ali Hashmi 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 8 2 10.32350/llr.82/02 Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the English Prosodic Phonology Processing Test (EPPPT): A Multi-Trait Multimethod Approach <p style="text-align: justify;">Most of the prosody perception tests do not capture how listeners perceive and interpret stress, tone, and intonation in the process of listening comprehension. The current study developed the English Prosodic Phonology Processing Test (EPPPT). A sample of 240 Luo speaking high school students were tested using Confirmatory Factory Analysis (CFA) in a multi-trait multimethod matrix. Four traits were measured including word prosody, sentence prosody, juncture, and discourse prosody. Three methods were used including the picture selection task, stress assignment task, and chunking task. CFA confirmed the current taxonomy of the diverse traits of English prosodic phonology: word stress, sentence stress, open and closed junctures, and discourse. The methods yielded statistically significant differences among the discriminant validity of these traits. The model fit was better when the different prosodic traits were specified (convergent validity), while the methods of testing yielded distinguishable, unique types of information about prosodic phonology processing. Using a battery of five tests, the results of EPPPT showed that the traits are quite independent of each other and the method effect is not significant.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords: </strong></em>reliability, validity, EPPPT, Prosody, MTMM</p> Gerry Ayieko Copyright (c) 2022 Gerry Ayieko 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 8 2 10.32350/llr.82/03 The Feminine, The Feminist and The Female: Evolution and Trends in the English Writings of Pakistani Women <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents a brief review of Pakistani women writers and their contribution to Pakistani literature in English. The study focuses on the evolution, trends, and characteristic features of their writing. Furthermore, in order to have a discernible view, Elaine Showalter’s methodology is used to categorize the development of women’s writing into three phases: the feminine, the feminist and the female. The findings of the study reveal that though slow and late in its evolution, women's writing forms a significant part of the Anglophone literary canon in Pakistan. Women writers have set a feminine tradition, peculiar in its consciousness, characters, and themes. Feminism is one of the influencing factors in their writing along with the representation of domestic issues. The study shows that women’s writing is markedly different from that of men’s. Women writers are more sensitive to the habitat they live in. As a result, their writing tends to be melodramatic and autobiographical. Moreover, they are true representatives of their gendered community. Mostly, their writing portrays women and their issues in domestic and public spheres. The current paper will help to understand women’s role, position, and degree of influence in the literary field from a broader perspective.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong></em> evolution, feminism, Pakistani English fiction, trends, women’s writing</p> Waseem Hassan Malik Musaib Junejo Tania Shabibr Shaikh Copyright (c) 2022 Waseem Hassan Malik, Musaib Junejo 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 8 2 10.32350/llr.82/04 ESL Teachers’ Perceptions regarding the Usefulness of Oral Corrective Feedback at Undergraduate Level <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to examine the perceptions of undergraduate level ESL teachers regarding oral feedback and its impact on student learning. In this regard, this study attempts to determine the particular method of corrective feedback (CF) teachers perceive to be useful, how they apply this method in language classroom, and how their feedback affects the learning of students. Hence, the current study examines how the input of L2 teachers influences the motivation, confidence, self-esteem, student-teacher relationship, and identity of students at undergraduate level. Data was collected through two qualitative research tools: “observations” and “semi-structured interviews”. Purposive sampling method was used and eight L2 teachers of a private university were sampled for this study. The observations of the selected teachers were conducted for 18 hours and semi-structured interviews were also conducted afterwards. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that direct CF was perceived and used by L2 teachers as the best way of correcting students. It was found that the participants had practical experience of direct CF. Moreover, it was concluded that direct CF and reasonable inquiries can influence motivation, confidence, self-esteem, and student-teacher relationship. The findings have useful implications for both theory and practice because they improve on the general guidelines for L2 teachers regarding what type of CF can be beneficial for L2 students, how their feedback can encourage or discourage students, and how they can correct the mistakes of students in an effective way.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords:</strong></em> educational techniques, ESL teaching, oral corrective feedback</p> Huma Sadiq Farrukh Hameed Hafiz Tahzeeb Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Huma Sadiq, Farrukh Hameed, Hafiz Tahzeeb Ahmed 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 8 2 10.32350/llr.82/05 Beyond the Lines of ‘Us’ versus ‘Them’: A Positive Discourse Analysis of ? Dioelected Speeches of Nelson Mandela <p style="text-align: justify;">Keeping in view language as a social practice capable of bringing socio-political changes, the current study is an endeavour to conduct positive discourse analysis of Nelson Mandela’ speeches, an anti-apartheid leader of South Africa. Taking guidelines from Van Dijk’s ideological square, we illustrate how novel strategies, contrary to the conventional ones, were employed by the orator to break the boundaries between ‘us’ and ‘them’. Mandela used the merger of dichotomies in terms of pronouns, positive other representation, mitigation through passivization, and replacement of positive words with words having negative connotations to describe the out-group and malicious state of affairs. The aim was to promote inter-racial tolerance and solidarity among the divided nation in order to attain the goal of an all-inclusive nationhood. The study concludes that Mandela’s strategic and unconventional use of discourse enabled him to play a major role in the peaceful democratization of South Africa and made him a global icon of peace and humanity.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong> </em>apartheid, ideological square, positive discourse analysis, us-them dichotomy</p> Nighat Khurshid Fouzia Janjua Copyright (c) 2022 Nighat Khurshid, Fouzia Janjua 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 8 2 10.32350/llr.82/06 English Vowel Sounds: An Empirical Study of Gamification Strategy at Nursery Level <p style="text-align: justify;">The&nbsp;current empirical study aimed to stimulate and measure the competence level of children for learning vowel sounds at nursery level at Right School, Model Town, Sillanwali. Sound-bingo strategy was used for distinguishing and learning vowel sounds in the context of gamification efficacy. Gamification frameworks can boost dedication, while also developing learning execution at the same time. In any case, only a few studies have been undertaken to address the constructs used to analyse the effects of gamification on people. The current study implemented Mathew Nudds and Casey Callaghan’s ‘Theory of Auditory Perception’ as its theoretical framework.&nbsp;According to the theory, the information we hear is comprehensible. The researchers used the purposive sampling&nbsp;technique and an achievement exam to obtain data for this study. Data was collected from two distinct groups of twenty-five students apiece, named Iqbal and Quaid, respectively. Quaid group was designated as the control group and Iqbal group as the experimental group. Utilising the gamification technique, both groups were subjected to a test without learning. Sound-bingo technique was utilised to deliver a specific corpus of vowel sounds to Iqbal group. The results revealed that when an activity is gamified, a meaningful goal needs to be provided before the action can be adequately rated. An all-around organised game could help to enhance children’s motivation, commitment, and mental turn of events. The&nbsp;current study concludes that gamification can influence the students’ attitudes toward language learning and its effective application can help them learn better.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;</em>achievement test, English vowel sounds, gamification, interest, nursery class, sound-bingo technique</p> Muhammad Ali Shahid Anser Mahmood Ali Furqan Syed Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Ali Shahid, Anser Mahmood, Ali Furqan Syed 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 8 2 10.32350/llr.82/07