UMT Education Review <p style="text-align: justify;">UMT Education Review is an open-access, double-blind peer-reviewed International journal published biannually by the Department of Education, University of Management and Technology. UER has a broad focus related to education development and change, especially occurring in the 21st century in the developing world.</p> Department of Education, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan en-US UMT Education Review 2616-9738 <div class="panel panel-default copyright"> <div class="panel-body"><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a> <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>UER </em>follows an open-access publishing policy and full text of all published articles is available free, immediately upon publication of an issue. The journal’s contents are published and distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</a>&nbsp;(<a href="">CC-BY 4.0</a>) license. Thus, the work submitted to the journal implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors (neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere). On acceptance of a manuscript for publication, a corresponding author on the behalf of all co-authors of the manuscript will sign and submit a completed Copyright and Author Consent Form.</p> <p>Copyright (c) The Authors</p> </div> </div> Exploring the Problems of Limited School Resources in Rural Schools and Curriculum Management <p class="HEADING1Unnumbered" style="text-align: justify; line-height: normal; margin: 0in 0in 6.0pt 0in;"><span class="eop"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: windowtext; font-weight: normal;">Various scholars have demonstrated the intricate and diverse nature of social disparities in South Africa. These inequalities are evident in dividing schools into urban and rural settings and distinguishing between well-equipped and inadequately equipped institutions. This division significantly impacts learners' performance across the nation's schools. Of particular disadvantage are rural schools, which grapple with constrained resources. This scarcity poses challenges for stakeholders involved in curriculum management and effective delivery within these schools. The legacy of apartheid has further compounded the hurdles faced in curriculum management within rural schools. The lingering imbalances from that era remain primarily unresolved, evident in the deficient resourcing and infrastructure prevalent in many rural schools. This study embraced an interpretivist perspective to gain insight into the experiences of 40 school principals from rural educational institutions in KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo. Employing semi-structured interviews, researchers analysed audio recordings through thematic analysis. The findings disclosed a pronounced need for more clarity in curriculum management as a principal impediment to efficiently handling resources and sustaining infrastructure. Moreover, the study uncovered a novel social phenomenon of collusion between principals and suppliers, which detrimentally impacts the education system by restricting access to quality and sufficient resources. Thus, the study proposes that school principals adopt pragmatic and transparent strategies in resource management. It further advocates for implementing suitable oversight mechanisms to ensure accountability and effective infrastructure utilisation in curriculum execution.</span></span></p> Dumisani Wilfred Mncube Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani Thandi Ngema Rachel Gugu Mkhasibe Copyright (c) 2023 UMT Education Review 2023-10-24 2023-10-24 6 2 1 31 10.32350/UER.62.01 Development of Transferable Skills among Grade 7 Students through Discussion Method <p style="text-align: justify;">Transferable skills are the demand of the 21<sup>st</sup> century. There is a need to prepare the younger generations for survival in their personal, professional, and social lives. An individual’s development requires the integration of these skills at each level, that is, primary, secondary, and tertiary level of education. Traditional teaching methods are not considered up-to-date for the development of required skills among students in the modern technological era. The development of students is the focus of demanded skills and education system as well. This goal can be achieved if teachers switch from traditional teaching methods towards interactive teaching methods. Therefore, research was conducted to explore the effect of discussion method on the development of transferable skills among students. Pretest posttest quasi-experimental design was employed to conduct the current study. The population of the study comprised Grade-7 students studying in public schools of Rawalpindi. Whereas, the targeted sample included 120 students of the selected public school. A school was selected with two intact groups taught by teachers following discussion and traditional methods of teaching. A paper-pencil test was designed based on communication, reasoned-decision making, and reflective thinking skills and was employed as pretest and posttest. The data was analyzed by using paired sample t-test to compare the means of both groups. Results showed that there was a significant difference in the development of transferable skills among students taught through discussion method and traditional method. It was recommended that teachers should use interactive teaching methods while teaching to develop communication skills, reflective thinking skills, and reasoned decision-making among students for their survival in contemporary century.</p> Lubna Shaheen Nasir Mahmood Zafar Iqbal Lillah Copyright (c) 2023 UMT Education Review 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 6 2 32 51 Academic Reading and Writing Challenges Faced by Doctoral Students in Peshawar, Pakistan: A Qualitative Study <p style="text-align: justify;">The current qualitative study attempted to explore the perceptions of doctoral students in relation to the challenges and difficulties they faced during their research degrees. In recent years, substantial and rapid changes have been taking place in the higher educational sector of Pakistan. Most universities have started to place a premium on the enhancement and productivity of research in terms of the number of publications and PhD students’ production. Despite this shift towards a focus on research productivity, universities in general and private universities in particular have been finding it a daunting challenge to provide essential facilities in line with the research needs of students and faculty. The sample of the study comprised of 10 doctoral students, from 5 private sector universities in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The sample was selected through purposive and convenient sampling techniques. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and was analysed using thematic analysis. The current study contributed to the understanding pertaining to the issue in several ways: (1) This study enriched the current literature about writing and reading difficulties of Pakistani doctoral students, (2), The study highlighted loopholes in doctoral studies/courses/programs in Pakistan and identified areas that need revision and improvement to help and improve doctoral studies. The findings revealed several challenges faced by doctoral students. These challenges include academic reading and writing difficulties, lack of requisite computer software application knowledge and skills, problems in supervisors’ role, ill-equipped libraries, and outdated course work content. The study also carries important implications in terms of providing insights into the issues and challenges faced by PhD Education students in Pakistan.</p> Ahsan Ur Rehman Muhammad Ilyas Khan Zarina Waheed Copyright (c) 2024 UMT Education Review 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 6 2 52 71