Media Code of Conduct Violations: A Study on Mass Communication Education and Practice of Professional Ethics

  • Muhammad Shabbir Sarwar School of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Salman Shafiq Guanghua Law College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
  • Javairia Shafiq School of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab
  • Fatima Sajjad School of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab
Keywords: anchorpersons, communication, law graduate, law information, legal fraternity, media ethics, media code of conduct, Pakistan


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This paper investigate the relationship between media code of conduct violations by television news channels' anchorpersons in Pakistan and their educational background, specifically comparing formal media graduates to non-media graduates. It also analyzes complaints lodged against 23 prominent news channels based on the data from Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA). The method of quantitative content analysis was applied on PEMRA complaints data for analysis. The results indicated 18 percent more tendency to violate media ethics among non-media graduate anchorpersons as compared to media graduate anchorpersons. Political bias and the dissemination of unverified content emerged as the most common complaints against both anchorpersons and news channels. The study suggests that a lack of understanding of relevant laws contributes to these violations, highlighting the need for legal education among media professionals. Furthermore, it identifies specific news channels that have received the highest number of complaints, including Kohinoor, Awaaz TV, and Samaa TV.


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How to Cite
Sarwar, M. S., Shafiq, M. S., Shafiq, J., & Sajjad, F. (2023). Media Code of Conduct Violations: A Study on Mass Communication Education and Practice of Professional Ethics. Law and Policy Review, 2(2), 96-110. Retrieved from