A Qualitative Analysis of Strategic Management and Planning in the Gambian Public Service Organizations
AbstractAbstract Views: 153
The current study investigates the strategic management and planning practices in the public service delivery (PSD) in public service organizations (PSOs) in The Gambia, West Africa. This study adopted a qualitative research design by conducting in-depth interviews with the senior public servants and beneficiaries of the selected PSOs, with a sample size of 20, by using a purposive sampling technique. The findings from these interviews showed that strategic plans of PSOs were formulated, implemented, and evaluated in consultation with both internal and external stakeholders. Moreover, to accommodate the divergent views and interests of influential groups and individuals, this study also, established that PSOs reviewed and effected slight changes in their strategic plans to keep abreast with the environment during the implementation process. Thus, this paper concluded that strategic management has significantly shaped PSD of PSOs. Finally, the study revealed that strategic plan implementation had a positive impact on PSD and helped in achieving the goals and objectives of PSOs in PSD in The Gambia.
Albrechts, L., & Balducci, A. (2013). Practicing strategic planning: In search of critical features to explain the strategic character of plans. disP-The Planning Review, 49(3), 16–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/02513625.2013.859001
Andrews, R., Beynon, M. J., & Genc, E. (2017). Strategy implementation style and public service effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Administrative Sciences, 7(1), e4. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci7010004
Andrews, R., Boyne, G. A., & Walker, R. M. (2006). Strategy Content and Organisational Performance: An Empirical Analysis. Public Administration Review, 66(1), 52–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2006.00555.x
Boyne, G. A., & Gould-Williams, J. S. (2003). Planning and performance in public organisations: An empirical analysis. Public Management Review, 5(1), 115–132. https://doi.org/10.1080/146166702200002889
Boyne, G. A., & Walker, R. M. (2010). Strategic management and public service performance: The way ahead. Public Administration Review, 70, s185-s192. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02271.x
Bryson, J. M. (1988). A strategic planning process for public and non-profit organizations. Long Range Planning, 21(1), 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301(88)90061-1
Bryson, J. M., Edwards, L. H. & Van Slyke, D. M. (Eds.). (2017). Getting strategic about strategic planning research. Public Management Review, 20(3), 317–339. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2017.1285111
Bryson, J., & Edwards, L. H. (2017). Strategic planning in the public sector. In Oxford research encyclopedia of business and management. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190224851.013.128
Bryson, J., & George, B. (2020). Strategic management in public administration. In Oxford research encyclopedia: Politics (pp. 1–26). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.139
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches (3rd ed.). Sage.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). SAGE Publications Inc.
Downe-Wamboldt, B. (1992). Content analysis: Method, applications, and issues. Health Care for Women International, 13, 313–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399339209516006
Elbanna, S. (2013). Processes and impacts of strategic management: Evidence from the public sector in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Public Administration, 36(6), 426–439. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2013.772629
Elbanna, S., Andrews, R., & Pollanen, R. (2016). Strategic planning and implementation success in public service organizations: Evidence from Canada. Public Management Review, 18(7), 1017–1042. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2015.1051576
Elbanna, S., Thanos, I., & Colak, M. (2014). An exploratory study of the determinants of the quality of strategic decision implementation in Turkish industrial firms. Journal of General Management, 40 (2), 27–46. https://doi.org/10.1177/030630701404000203
Elliott, G., Day, M., & Lichtenstein, S. (2019). Strategic planning activity, middle manager divergent thinking, external stakeholder salience, and organisational performance: A study of English and Welsh police forces. Public Management Review, 22(11), 1581-1602. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2019.1635194
Ferlie, E., & Ongaro, E. (2015). Strategic management in public services organisations concepts, schools and contemporary issues. Routledge.
Ferlie, E., & Parrado, S. (2018). Strategic management in public services organisations: developing a european perspective. In E. Ongaro & S. van Thiel (Ed.), The palgrave handbook of public administration and management in Europe (pp. 967-990). Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
George, B., & Desmidt, S. (2016) Unravelling the determinants of strategic planning effectiveness in public organisations: A strategic decision-making perspective at the individual and organisational level [Doctoral dessertation, Ghent University].
Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Sage.
Hansen, J. R., & Ferlie, E. (2016). Applying strategic management theories in public sector organisations: Developing a typology. Public Management Review, 18(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2014.957339
Höglund, L., Caicedo, M. H., Mårtensson, M., & Svärdsten, F. (2018). Strategic management in the public sector - how tools enable and constrain strategy making. International Public Management Journal, 21(5), 822-849. https://doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2018.1427161
Hsieh, H., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9),1277-1288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305276687
Ijewereme, O. B. (2018). Strategic planning and performance in federal civil service of Nigeria (2004-2015) [Doctoral dissertation, Obafemi Awolowo University].
Johnsen, Å. (2015). Strategic management thinking and practice in the public sector: A strategic planning for all seasons? Financial Accountability & Management, 31(3), 243–268. https://doi.org/10.1111/faam.12056
Joyce, P. (2015). Strategic management in the public sector. Routledge.
Kabeyi, M. J. B. (2019). Organisational strategic planning, implementation and evaluation with analysis of challenges and benefits. International Journal of Applied Research, 5(6), 27–32.
Koppenjan, J. F. M. (2012). The new public governance in public service delivery. Redub http://hdl.handle.net/1765/93164
Liddle, J. (2018). Public value management and new public governance: key traits, issues and
developments. In The Palgrave handbook of public administration and management in Europe (pp. 967-990). Palgrave Macmillan.
Llewellyn, S., & Tappin, E. (2003). Strategy in the public sector: Management in the Wilderness, Journal of Management Studies, 40(4), 955–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00366
Moore, M. H. (2000). Managing for value: Organisational strategy in for-proﬁt, nonproﬁt, and governmental organisations. Nonproﬁt and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(1), 183–208. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291S009
Nutt, P. C., & Backoff, R. W. (1993). Transforming public organizations with strategic management and strategic leadership. Journal of Management, 19(2), 299-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-2063(93)90056-S
Pasha, O. Q., Poister, T. H., & Edwards, L. H. (2018). Mutual relationship of strategic stances and formulation methods, and their impacts on performance in public local transit agencies. Administration & Society, 50(6), 884–910. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399715587524
Poister, T. H., & Streib, G. D. (1999). Strategic management in the public sector: Concepts,
models, and processes. Public Productivity & Management Review, 22(3), 308–325. https://doi.org/10.2307/3380706
Poister, T. H., Pasha, O. Q., & Edwards, L. H. (2013). Does performance management lead to better outcomes? Evidence from the US public transit industry. Public Administration Review, 73(4), 625-636. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12076
Poister, T. H., Pitts, D., & Edwards, L. H. (2010). Strategic management research in the public sector: Synthesis, assessment, and future directions. American Review of Public Administration, 40(4), 522–545. https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074010370617
Republic of The Gambia (2015/2016). Approved and Adopted Report – Part II Of The 2015/2016 Joint Session Of The Public Accounts & Public Enterprises Committees of the National Assembly of The Gambia.
Sawaneh, B. (2021a). Strategic plans implementation and evaluation in public service organisations in the Gambia. Journal of Economics and Allied Research, 6 (2), 69 – 84.
Sawaneh, B. (2021b). Strategic plan formulation process in public service organisations in the Gambia. Journal of Economics and Allied Research, 6 (2), 193–211.
Talbot, C. (2010) Theories of performance; Organisational and service improvement in the public domain. Oxford University Press.
Tamimi, S. A. A., Khalil, S., & Abdullah, H. H. (2018). Applications of strategic management practices in public sector: Cases from some Middle East countries. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5 (9), 36–51. http://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.59.5159
Wauters, B. (2017). Strategic management in the public sector: a tool for improving performance of ongoing operations or for redefining performance to meet new challenges? A challenge paper for discussion. European Commission’s Public Administration and Governance Network. https://ec.europa.eu/esf/transnationality/sites/esf/files/pag_network_strategy_paper_full.pdf
World Bank. (2010). The Gambia: Improving civil service performance (World Bank. Report No. 51655-GM). https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/952501468282550211/pdf/516550v10P10221rmReportFeb3100FINAL.pdf