Accessibility to Potable Water Supply and Satisfaction in Lokoja, Kogi State-Nigeria

Keywords: accessibility, government, households, potable water, urban areas


Abstract Views: 119

The current study aims to assess household accessibility to domestic water supply in Lokoja, Nigeria. For this purpose, two hundred and ten households were systematically sampled and information was gathered on their sources of water supply, frequency of trips to water collection points, and their perception of the quality of domestic water available for them. Relevant information was obtained from archival materials. Tables were employed to analyse the socio-economic composition of the respondents and the sources of water supply in the neighbourhoods. The Likert scale model was employed to evaluate the understanding and thinking about the satisfaction on quality and adequacy of domestic water supply in the city. ANOVA was also used to evaluate the level of satisfaction with the quantity and quality of domestic water supply across various residential areas in Lokoja, Nigeria. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient (PPMC) was used to determine the strength and direction of association that exist between domestic water supply, on one hand, and income level, education profile and residential characteristics of households on the other hand. Findings revealed that more than 70% of households residing at Zango Daji and Army Barracks areas rely on boreholes for their regular water supply. Well water and water from vendors are the principal sources of water for residents of Felele area and these constituted of 48.1% and 25.9%, respectively. Approximately, 100%, 57.7%, and 34.6% of urban households that reside at Old Poly Quarters, Lokongoma Phase 1 and 11 and Kabawa areas respectively, indicated that they rely on irregular and unpredictable public tap water supply provided by the Kogi State Water Management Board. Urban households perceived and rated the availability and quality of domestic water supply as dissatisfied. There is a linear relationship between sources of domestic water supply and urban household income level as well as education profile, which was statistically significant (r = .196, n = 189, p = .01) and (r = .282, n = 189, p = .01). Furthermore, the study recommended certain provisions related to potable water supply in the urban households, in order to reduce the vulnerability of urban residents towards water-borne diseases in Lokoja and environs. 


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Happy, Federal University Lokoja

1. Adetunji Musilimu Adeyinka is an Associate Professor of Transportation Geography, Federal University Lokoja. 


2.  John-Nwagwu is a Lecturer 11 in the Department of Geography , Federal University Lokoja



Ahmed, A. A., & Kafayos, Y. (2020). Prevalence of waterborne diseases in Bade, Nguru and Machina local government areas of Yobe State-Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health, 41(11), 35–46.

Akoteyon, I. S. (2019). Factors affecting household’s access to water supply in varied income residential areas in parts of Lagos metropolis. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, 43(43), 7–24.

Ali, K. A, (2012). Ali K. A., (2012). Development of water supply infrastructure in Nigeria: challenges and prospects [Lecture]. 2012 Nigerian Society of Engineers October Lectures.

Angoua, E. L. E., Dongo, K., Templeton, M. R., Zinsstag, J., & Bonfoh, B. (2018). Barriers to access improved water and sanitation in poor peri-urban settlements of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. PloS one, 13(8), Article e0202928.

Ayuba, R., Omonona, O. V., & Onwuka, O. S. (2013). Assessment of groundwater quality of Lokoja basement area, North-Central Nigeria. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 82, 413–420.

Biswas, A. K., & Seetharam, K. E. (2008). Achieving water security for Asia: Asian water development outlook, 2007. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 24(1), 145–176.

Carrard, N., Foster, T., & Willetts, J. (2019). Groundwater as a source of drinking water in southeast Asia and the Pacific: A multi-country review of current reliance and resource concerns. Water, 11(8), Article e1605.

Egbinola, C. N. (2017). Trend in access to safe water supply in Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 7(8), 89–96.

Hajarat, S. (2018). Analysis of accessibility and distribution of domestic water supply in Nassarawa local government area of Kano State, Nigeria. ATBU Journal of Science, Technology and Education, 6(2), 142–150.

National Population Commission. (2006). Population census of the federal republic of Nigeria. National Population Commission, Abuja.

Ngozi-Chika, C. S., Ugbaje, K. P., & Onugba, O. I. A. (2016). Assessment of surface and ground water quality in Ganaja, Lokoja, North-Central, Nigeria. Assessment, 6(2), 1–6.

Odjegba, E. E., Idowu, O. A., Ikenweiwe, N. B., Martins, O., & Sadeeq, A. Y. (2015). Public perception of potable water supply in Abeokuta south west, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 19(1), 5–9.

Ojoina, O. A. (2014). Hydrogeophysical investigation for groundwater in Lokoja metropolis, Kogi state, Central Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Geology, 6(1), 81–95.

Osiemo, M. M., Ogendi, G. M., & M’Erimba, C. (2019). Microbial quality of drinking water and prevalence of water-related diseases in Marigat Urban Centre, Kenya. Environmental health insights, 13, 1–7.

Premium Times. (2019). Residents groan as water scarcity hits Lokoja.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2019). Clean water and sanitation. Our World in Data.

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). (2014). Joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation.

Vaziri, M., & Tolouei, R. (2010). Urban water resources sustainable development: a global comparative appraisal. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, 34(B1), 93–106

World Health Organization/UNICEF. (2017). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines.

World Health Organization. (2012). Progress on drinking water and sanitation. Joint monitoring programme update.

World Health Organization. (2017). Diarrhoeal disease.

Yoade, A. O., & Fatusin, A. F. (2017). Residents’ perception of urban renewal project implementation in Akure, Nigeria. Ife Social Sciences Review, 25(1), 25–37.

Yusuff, A. S., John, W., & Oloruntoba, A. C. (2014). Review on prevalence of waterborne diseases in Nigeria. Journal of Advancement in Medical and life sciences, 1(2), 1–3.

How to Cite
Adetunji, M. A., & John-Nwagwu, H. O. (2022). Accessibility to Potable Water Supply and Satisfaction in Lokoja, Kogi State-Nigeria . Governance and Society Review, 1(2), 104-123.