Accessibility to Potable Water Supply and Satisfaction in Lokoja, Kogi State-Nigeria
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The current study aims to assess household accessibility to domestic water supply in Lokoja, Nigeria. For this purpose, two hundred and ten households were systematically sampled and information was gathered on their sources of water supply, frequency of trips to water collection points, and their perception of the quality of domestic water available for them. Relevant information was obtained from archival materials. Tables were employed to analyse the socio-economic composition of the respondents and the sources of water supply in the neighbourhoods. The Likert scale model was employed to evaluate the understanding and thinking about the satisfaction on quality and adequacy of domestic water supply in the city. ANOVA was also used to evaluate the level of satisfaction with the quantity and quality of domestic water supply across various residential areas in Lokoja, Nigeria. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient (PPMC) was used to determine the strength and direction of association that exist between domestic water supply, on one hand, and income level, education profile and residential characteristics of households on the other hand. Findings revealed that more than 70% of households residing at Zango Daji and Army Barracks areas rely on boreholes for their regular water supply. Well water and water from vendors are the principal sources of water for residents of Felele area and these constituted of 48.1% and 25.9%, respectively. Approximately, 100%, 57.7%, and 34.6% of urban households that reside at Old Poly Quarters, Lokongoma Phase 1 and 11 and Kabawa areas respectively, indicated that they rely on irregular and unpredictable public tap water supply provided by the Kogi State Water Management Board. Urban households perceived and rated the availability and quality of domestic water supply as dissatisfied. There is a linear relationship between sources of domestic water supply and urban household income level as well as education profile, which was statistically significant (r = .196, n = 189, p = .01) and (r = .282, n = 189, p = .01). Furthermore, the study recommended certain provisions related to potable water supply in the urban households, in order to reduce the vulnerability of urban residents towards water-borne diseases in Lokoja and environs.
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