Concentric Circles Theory and Nigeria’s Defence Policy: An Appraisal

  • Nneka Amalu University of Calabar, Nigeria
  • Ekeng Antigha Okon University of Calabar, Nigeria
  • Etu Gboshe University of Calabar, Nigeria
Keywords: concentric circles theory, defence, Nigeria, policy, security


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This study appraises the application of the concentric circles theory in Nigeria’s defence policy. It has been noted that Nigeria’s defence policy manifests the concentric circles theory, ever since the country attained independence in 1960. The theory posits three circles. The first circle is about Nigeria and the defence of its territorial integrity and sovereignty. The second circle covers all states of the West African sub-region, while the third circle includes the whole of Africa. However, the theory is not without challenges as certain threats experienced by Nigeria have made the theory inadequate to provide an effective defence policy. The current study, therefore, reiterates the need for Nigeria to take decisive steps to remedy the challenges posed by the concentric circles theory. The aim is to formulate a more realistic and credible defence policy backed by a strong military industrial complex.


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How to Cite
Amalu, N., Okon, E. A., & Gboshe, E. (2023). Concentric Circles Theory and Nigeria’s Defence Policy: An Appraisal . Governance and Society Review, 2(2), 22-35. Retrieved from