Application of Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis Model to Quranic Verses Discussing Peaceful Dealing with Hypocrites

Keywords: The Holy Quran; peaceful coexistence; discourse analysis; ideology


Abstract Views: 542

Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary research approach which declares that discourse is mutually related to social activities and power relations. This approach decodes the structure and hidden ideology of a text by describing and analyzing its language, context and current social and temporal situation. Some of the verses in the Holy Qur’an that deal with hypocrisy discuss dealing with hypocrites peacefully and have a discursive structure. The present study examined these verses as an ideological discourse based on Fairclough’s CDA to elucidate thematic verses’ capacity in the process of meaning creation and open up new horizons for researchers to analyze the thematic verses. The results have revealed that, at the description level, discourse components such as the expressive value of words, active and imperative sentences, and modality in verses are closely tied to dealing with hypocrites peacefully. The situational context analysis at the interpretation level has revealed that the enunciation style of the verses’ textual layer is fully compatible with the social and temporal conditions at the time of their revelation. Analysis at the explanation level demonstrated the depth of the Divine revelation about hypocrisy, suggesting that these verses aim to promote the hegemony of monotheism, trust in God, patience, piety, and forgiveness in the Islamic society in addition to peaceful coexistence.

Keywords: The Holy Qur’an, Peaceful coexistence, Discourse analysis, Fairclough’s approach, Ideology


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Fathiyeh Fattahizadeh , Department of Quranic Studies and Hadith, Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

Educational experience:
Philosophy of the West from Tehran University, 1990 (Entrance Exam rank: Under 50)
Master of Quran and Hadith Science from Tehran University-1992 (Entrance Exam rank: 1)
Ph.D. in Quran and Hadith Science from the University of Qom-1994 (Entrance Exam rank: 7)
Teaching at the university as a faculty member since 1994
Consultation and Advice from Master and doctoral thesis (About 80 items)
Design and approval of Ph.D. in Quran and Hadith sciences from 2014 at Alzahra University.

Research Records:
1- Editor-in-chief of two journals: Quran and Hadith Sciences Research at Alzahra University and Hadith Understanding studies at Qazvin International University
2- Staff Writer: 6 Journal of Research
3- Member of the Academic Committee of Farabi Festival in three periods
4- Scientific Committee on Broadcast theory seats
5- Member of Nahj-ol-Balaghah Scientific Society (two courses)
6- Scientific Secretary of the Conference on Applied Scientific Approach to the Theme of Chastity and Hijab 2016.
7- Book titles: 8 the title of the book consists of two titles of compilation works as textbooks and tuition
And Women's book in Islamic history and thought twice introduced at national level.
8- Compilation of Papers: About 100 Scientific and Promotional Articles, numerous articles at national and international conferences.
9- Post-doctoral supervisor
10- Executor two Research core:
1-Intermediate studies of Quran and Hadith from 2015 to 2017
2- New Linguistic Studies of Quran and Hadith from 2017 to now

Fereshteh Motamad Langrodi, Department of Quranic Studies and Hadith, Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

Quranic Sciences, University of Islamic Religions, 2013. (First Place )
Master of Quran and Hadith Science from Al-zahra University,2015.(First Place)
Ph.D. in Quran and Hadith Science from the University of Al-zahra.2020.(First Place)
Al-Zahra University Postdoctoral Researcher. 2021.
Teaching at the Al-zahra university since 2019.


Adak, Saber. Ignorant Violence: A New Approach to the behavior of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with the Opposition, Tehran: Kavir, 2010.

Akasheh, Mahmoud. Luqa al-khatab al-siyasi derasa luqawiyya tatbiqiyya fi dhu’ nazariyya al- ittisal. Egypt: Dar al-nashr li al-jami’aat, 2005.

Alusi, Mahmoud. Rooh al-Maany fi tafsir al-Qur’an al-Azim. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, 1415 AH.

Bazargan, Mahdi. An Introduction to Freedom in the Qur’an. Tehran: Qalam, 2009.

Fairclough, Norman. Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Longman Group Limited, 2000.

__. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992.

__. Language and Power. New York: Longman Inc., 1989.

__. Media Discourse. London: Edward Arnold, 1995a.

__.Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language.

London: Longman, 1995b.

Fotoohi Rudmajani, Mahmoud. Stylistics: Theories, Approaches, and Methods. Tehran: Sokhan, 2011.

Galeotti, Anna Elisabetta. “Do We Need Toleration as a Moral Virtue?”, Res Publica, no. 7, (2001): 273-292. DOI: 10.1023/A:1012217012310. DOI:

Heyd, David. Toleration: An Elusive Virtue. Research Institute of Strategic Studies Publications, 2005.

Ibn Hisham, Abdulmalik. Al-Sira al-Nabawiuua. Beirut: Dar al-Ma’arif. (n.d.).

Ibn Manzoor, Muhammad bin Mukarram. Lisan al-Arab. Beirut: Dar al-Sadir, 1414 AH.

Ibn Sa’d, Muhammad. Tabaqat al-kubra. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, 1990.

Javadi Amoli, Abdollah. Tasnim. Qom: Isra, 2009.

Khan Beigi, Hamzeh. “Study and Analysis of the Political Life of the Prophet (PBUH) with Emphasis on Dealing with Enemies”, Hablolmatin, Vol. 6, 2014.

Kohlberg, Etan. "The Development of Imāmī Shīʻī Doctorine of Jihad", Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 126, no. 1, 1976.

Mahdavi Damqani, Mahmoud. “Prophet Muhammad and Hypocrisy”. Historical Studies in Islam, no. 1, (July 2009): 134-151.

Marefat, Muhammad Hadi. Al-Tamhid fi olum al-Qur’an. Qom: Al-Tamhid, 1428 AH.

Modarresi, Muhammad Taqi. Man, Huda al-Qur’an. Tehran: Dar Muhibbi al-Hussain, 1419 AH.

Phillips, Louise J., and Marianne W. Jørgensen. "Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method." Hadi Jalili (trans.) Tehran: Nay Publications, 2018.

Piri, Hossein. Holy Prophet’s Conduct (sirah) in the encounter with Hypocrites in the Qur’an and Hadith, Master dissertation for Science Degree in Qur’an and Hadith, School of Humanities, Iran: Tarbiat Modarres University, 2001.

Razaghi Mousavi, Qassem. “Tolerance with the Opposition and Fighting the Opposition in the Prophetic Life”, Journal of Marifat, Vol. 86, 2004.

Sayyed Qutb, Ibrahim. Fi Zilal al-Qur’an. Beirut: Dar al-Shuruq, 1412 AH.

Tabatabai, Mohammad Hossein. Al-mizan fi tafsir al-Qur’an (vol. 5). Qom: Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom Publications, 1417 AH.

Tabarsi, Fadhl Ibn Hasan. Majma’ al-bayan fi tafsir al-Qur’an. Tehran: Nasser Khosrow, 1993.

Tabari, Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Jarir. Jami’ al-bayan fi tafsir al-Qur’an. Beirut: Dar al-Mar’efa, 1412 AH.

Toosi, Muhammad Ibn Hassan. Al-tebyan fi tafsir al-Qur’an. Beirut: Dar al-Ahya al-Turath al-Araby, (n.d.).

Torihi, Fakhreddin. Majma al-bahrayn. Tehran: Mortazavi Bookstore, 1996.

Waqidi, Muhammad bin Umar. Al-maghazi. Beirut: Al-Alami Institute, 1409 AH.

Watt, Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina, Oxford, Oxford University, 1956.

Yazdi, Ali Muhammad. The Biography of the Prophet (PBUH) Against the Opponents from the Language of the Qur’an, Qom: Islamic Sciences and Culture Academy, 2014.

Zamakhshari, Mahmoud Ibn Omar. Kushaf an haqa’eq ghawamiz al-Tanzil. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Araby, 1407 AH.

How to Cite
Fattahizadeh, Fathyieh, and Fereshteh Motamad Langrodi. 2022. “Application of Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis Model to Quranic Verses Discussing Peaceful Dealing With Hypocrites”. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 12 (1), 231-46.