Insights into the Deepest Recesses of Human Mind A Comparative Analysis of Ghazalian Aql and Freudian Ego Section Articles


Shumaila Mazhar
Dr. Shahzadi Pakeeza


The core objective of this study is to provide a venue to the integration of the spiritual insights of Ghazalian thought with the deep knowledge resulted from Freudian psychoanalysis. A descriptive and analytical approach has been adopted to analyze Ghazalian concept of aq’l and Freudian ego. Zepetnek’s (1998) theory of comparative literature has provided guidelines for a thorough analysis of both the models.  This analytical approach may guide us to an alternative critical agenda for having a better grasp of the human psyche. The findings of the study reveal that both aq’l and ego are the conscious parts of the psyche which use logical thinking and mediate between the deep levels of the psyche and the external reality. Freudian ego develops out of modification of the id, playing the role of a mediator between the id and external reality. Likewise, Ghazali gives a leading position to the intellect or aq’l which comprises reason, the capacity to discriminate vice and virtue. Besides, the current study proceeds from the postulation that despite the fact that Freudian psychoanalytic theory has brought forward insightful psychological considerations, equally appropriate readings will probably result from analyzing Ghazalian theory of soul. At the same time, it is also hoped that the insights brought forth by this study may open new vistas for the study of human nature.


How to Cite
Shumaila Mazhar, & Dr. Shahzadi Pakeeza. (2020). Insights into the Deepest Recesses of Human Mind. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization (JITC), 10(1). Retrieved from


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