This article explores the concept of unity of being in fiction by Pakistani women writers. The usage of mystic language and depiction of mystical and Sūfi symbols in literature can be traced back to ancient texts. However, it has been deemed alien for women to be Sūfis and have mystic experience, apart from a few exceptions. Indulging in formulating mystical symbols and using mystic language by women has not been perceived as too womanly. The main reason for this is the fact that women’s world-view has been restricted and thus deemed limited. Complete works of fiction by Pakistani women writers writing in Urdu have been explored for this research. There are two steps in sample selection i.e. women fiction writers and their fiction. Women writers are selected on the basis of set criteria. Selection of text is done through theoretical sampling. Women fiction writers have used mystic symbols meaningfully at innumerable places in their works. By the study of these works, it can be concluded that women writers have indulged in using mystical language and symbols and have done it in a crafty manner, though retaining the traditional usage of these symbols and metaphors.
Akhtar, S. J. Urdu ki Novel Ngar Khawateen [Women Novelists of Urdu]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 1997.
Ibn Arabi, Muhyidin. “The Divine Roots of Human Love.” Translated by William C. Chittick. Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society XVIII (1995): 55-78.
Ashraf, Khalid. Barr-e-Sagheer mein Urdu Novel [Urdu Novel in the Subcontinent]. Delhi: Kitabi Dunya. 2003.
Atif, Parveen. Mein Maili, Piya Ujle [I am Impure and my Beloved is Untainted]. Lahore: Al-Faisal Publishers. 2003.
Azeem, Waqar. Dastan se Afsane tak [From Legend to Short Story]. Lahore: Al-Waqar Publications. 2010.
Bakhsh, Dr M. Sultana. Pakistani Khwateen ka Nasri Adab mein Kirdar [Pakistani Women’s Role in Prose Literature]. Islamabad: Allama Iqbal Open University, 2011.
Coyne, Imelda T. “Sampling in Qualitative Research. Purposeful and Theoretical Sampling; Merging or Clear Boundaries? Journal of Advanced Nursing 26, no. 3 (1997): 623-630.
Gilbert, Sandra. M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. Yale: Yale University Press. 1980.
Khan, Sohail Ahmed. “Alamaton ke Sarchasme.”[Roots of Symbols]. Majmooa e Suhail Ahmed Khan [Collected works of Suhail Ahmed Khan]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel. 2009.
Kugle, Scott. Sūfi s and Saints' Bodies: Mysticism, Corporeality, and Sacred Power in Islam. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. 2011.
Haider, Qurat ul Ain. Aag ka Darya [River of Fire]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel. 2013.
Hashmi, Jameela. Apna Apna Jahannum [Everyone’s own Hell]. Lahore: Maktaba-e-Jadeed Press. 1973.
Hashmi, Jameela. Talash-e-Baharaan [Search for Spring]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications. 2003.
Jameela Hashmi. Dasht-e-Soos [The Desert of Soos]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel. 2007.
Hina, Zahida. Qaidi Saans leta Hae [Prisoner Breathes]. Karachi: Roshan khyal. 1990.
Hussain, Khalida. Majmooa e Khalida Hussain [Collected works of Khalida Hussain]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications. 2008.
Qudsia, Bano. Raja Gidh [Vulture King]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel. 1981.
Qudsia, Bano. Hasil Ghaat. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel. 2003.
Qudsia, Bano. Naqabil-e-zikr [Unmentionable]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel. 2009.
Salahuddin, Ambreen. Feminism in Modern Urdu Poetesses. Lahore: West Pakistan Urdu Academy. 2005.
Salahuddin, Ambreen. “Women’s Lives and Images: Traditional Symbolism in Pakistani Fiction.” PhD Dissertation, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 2015.
Salahuddin, Ambreen., Muhammad Zakria Zakar, Ahmed Usman. “Threshold: A Spatial and Ideological Barrier in South Asian fiction - A Case study of Pakistani Women Fiction Writers.” South Asian Studies 31. No. 1. (2016): 175-185.
Salahuddin, Ambreen., and Ahmed Usman. “Beyond the Threshold: Emancipation or Entrapment? The Feminine Archetypes in Pakistani Women Fiction Writers.” Journal of Research (Humanities), LIII (2017): 15-29.
Salahuddin, Ambreen. “Usage of Religious Symbols in Fiction by Pakistani Women Writers.” Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 8, Issue 1, (2018): 84-92.
Salahuddin, Ambreen. Pakistani Khawateen ke Fiction mein Lakshman Rekha ko paar Karne ki Alamat: Iradi aur Gher Iradi Amal ka Qazia [Crossing Lakhshman Rekha in fiction by Pakistani women writers: The Debate of Intentional and Unintentional Act]. Mayar, 21 (Jan- June 2019): 143-152.
Salahuddin, Ambreen. Khalida Hussain ki Gung Shehzadi aur Hélèn Cixous ki Medusa ka Qehqaha [Khalida Hussain’s Gung Shehzadi and the Laugh of Hélèn Cixous’s Medusa]. Bunyad, 11. (2020).
Syed, Atiya. Hikayat e Junun [Tales of Wildness]. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel. 2001.
Tseng, Ming-yu. “Symbolic Discourse: Mystical Writing as Anti-Language.” Language and Literature 6, no. 3 (1997): 181-195.