Role of Socialization Patterns towards Adopting Rigid Sectarian Identities


Muhammad Faizan Jamil
Tayyaba Sohail


Religion is an essential part of individuals’ daily routine practices in the Pakistani society. People rigorously own and defend their particular religious beliefs in the extremely diversified population of the country. The induction of sectarian ideologies in the mindset of children begins with their early socialization. This process further develops with the passage of time and the mindset of children becomes extremely rigid. Sectarian rigidity advances the elements of disrespect and intolerance among the believers of adverse sectarian groups. This study was aimed to explain the role of socialization patterns (religious ideological orientation, cultural socialization and peer group pressure) in enhancing sectarian rigidity in the society. Survey research was conducted in two high ranking universities of Lahore (one government university and one private university). It was based on the responses collected from 250 participants who were selected through the application of simple ransom sampling technique. Two hypotheses were tested to evaluate the relationship and the predictive role of socialization patterns in enhancing the element of sectarian rigidity in individuals. The results of the current study revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between socialization patterns and sectarian rigidity after the application of Pearson product-moment correlation test. Furthermore, the results computed through multilinear regression analysis showed a significant and positive predictive role of socialization patterns in enhancing sectarian rigidity. Thus, religious ideological orientation, cultural socialization and peer group pressure influenced the behavior of individuals that generate rigid sectarian identities in the society.


How to Cite
Muhammad Faizan Jamil, and Tayyaba Sohail. 2020. “Role of Socialization Patterns towards Adopting Rigid Sectarian Identities ”. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 10 (1), 255-72.


Afzal, Saima., Hamid Iqbal, and Mavara Inayat. “Sectarianism and Its Implications for Pakistan Security: Policy Recommendations Using Exploratory Study.” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 4, no. 4 (2011): 19-26.
Afzal, Salman. “New HEC Ranking of Universities 2019 (Updated).” Students Heart, 2019.
Ahmar, Moonis. “Sectarian Conflicts in Pak.” Pakistan Vision 9, no. 1 (2012): 1-19.
Berggren, Niclas., and Mikael Elinder. “Is Tolerance Good or Bad for Growth?” Public Choice 150, no. 1-2 (2012): 283–308.
Christia, Fotini., and Elizabeth Dekeyser. “The Nature and Origins of Sectarian Animosity.” MIT Political Science Department Research Paper No. 2019-9. (2019).
Cooley, Charles Horton. Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. New York, NY: Scribner’s, 1902.
Dejaeghere, Yves., and Hooghe Marc. “The Relationship between Ethnocentric Attitudes and Avoidance Behavior among Belgian Students.” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal 40, no. 1 (2012): 15–30.
Durrani, Naureen., and Dunne, Máiréad. “Curriculum and National Identity: Exploring the Links between Religion and Nation in Pakistan.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 42, no. 2 (2010): 215-240.
Erikson, H Erik. Identity and the Life Cycle. New York, NY: Norton, 1980.
Fair, C. Christine. “Explaining Support for Sectarian Terrorism in Pakistan: Piety, Maslak and Sharia.” Religions 6, no. 10 (2015): 1137-1167.
Farook, Shazia Kamal. “Shia-Sunni Sectarianism: Iran's Role in Tribal Regions of Pakistan.” Masters Dissertation: Georgetown University, 2015.
Freud, Sigmund. New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. New York, NY: Norton, 1933.
Furrow James L., King Pamela Ebstyne, and White Krystal. “Religion and Positive Youth Development: Identity, Meaning, and Prosocial Concerns.” Applied Developmental Science 8, no. 1 (2004): 17-28.
Ghazi, Safdar Rehman., Shahzada Gulap., Khan Ismail., Shabbir Muhammad Nauman., and Shah Muhammad Tahir. “Content Analysis of Textbooks of Social and Pakistan Studies for Religious Tolerance in Pakistan.” Asian Social Sciences 7, no. 5 (2011).
Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Jamil, Muhammad Faizan., and Sohail, Tayyaba. “Group Conformity and Individuals Behaviour towards Adopting Sectarian Identities.” Bennu University Research Journal in Islamic Studies 6, no. 1 (2019): 1–30.
Jarman, Neil. “Teacher-Student Relationships Which Promote Resilience at School: a Micro-Level Analysis of Students' Views'.” Institute for Conflict Research 2, no. 12 (2012): 385-398.
Javaid, Umbreen. “Genesis and Effects of Religious Extremism in Pakistan.” International Journal of Business and Social Science 2, no. 7 (2011): 282–88.;_Special_Issue_April_2011/30.pdf
Jordan, Wilbur Kitchener. “Sectarian Thought and Its Relation to the Development of Religious Toleration, 1640-1660: Part I: ‘The Mystics and Enthusiasts.’” Huntington Library Quarterly 3, no. 2 (1940): 197–223.
Kaukab, Syeda Rakhshanda., and Saeed, Ahmed. “To Analyse the Factors Enhancing Intolerance among University Students.” Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science 2, no. 10 (2014): 1–10.
Kohlberg, Lawrence. States in the Development of Moral Thought and Action. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.
Mahsood, Asma Khan., Khalique Muhammad. “History of Sectarianism in Pakistan: Implications for Lasting Peace.” Journal of Political Science 5, no. 4 (2017) DOI:10.4172/2332-0761.1000291.
Mangat, Shamshad. “Sectarianism a Serious Threat to Muslim.” Daily Times, September 12, 2016.
Mead, George Herbert. Mind, Self, and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935.
Pant, Harsh V. “Pakistan and Iran's Dysfunctional Relationship.” Middle East Quarterly 16, no. 2 (2009): 43–50.
Piaget, Jean. The Construction of Reality in the Child. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1954.
R Richards, K Andrew. “Role Socialization Theory.” European Physical Education Review 21, no. 3 (2015).
Shehzad, Ayesha. The Issue of Ethnicity in Pakistan 1972-85. Islamabad: Higher Education Commission, 2007.
Tabachnick, Barbara., and Linda Fidell. Using Multivariate Statistics. 5th ed., 2007.
UNESCO. “Declaration of Principles on Tolerance.” (1995).
Wiatrowski, Michael David. “Social Control Theory and Delinquency.” Portland State University, 1978.
Wilson, Beyan. Religion in Sociological Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Zahab, Mariam Abou. “Unholy Nexus: Talibanism and and Sectarianism in “Pakistan's Trial Areas”.” Sciencepo. Journal (2009).