Political, Religious and Social Unrest in Yemen in the 18th And 19th Centuries during the Late Ottoman Dynasty

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Ahmad Atabik
Muhamad Mustaqim

Abstract

Yemen is a country with a long history of world civilization, both before and after the emergence of Islam. For the pre-Islamic period, the Qur’ān has talked about various tribes living in Yemen, such as the 'Ad and the Saba’ people. In the Islamic period, many Yemeni people played an important role in spreading Islam to various parts of the world. This article discusses the situation of Yemen in the 18th and 19th centuries, when massive turmoil occurred in the society. In terms of politics, Yemen was surrounded by a growing number of dynasties, such as the Ottoman dynasty of Turkey which belonged to the Sunni sect, the Safavid dynasty of Iran which belonged to the Shi’a sect, and the emergence of the Wahhabi movement in the Hejaz. At that time, Islamic states were being colonized by western countries, such as Egypt which was controlled by the French. Such conditions led to political turmoil in Yemen. In religious sense, there were various sects claiming truth one another in Yemen, among them were the Zaydi Shia and the Ismaili Shia. This caused hostilities among Muslim people at that time in Yemen. Keeping in view the social aspect, there was a social gap which led to feuding among the various social components in Yemen. The people of Sana’a city and its administration frequently went through unstable situations; moreover, wars among tribes for material purposes also occurred.

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How to Cite
Atabik, Ahmad, and Muhamad Mustaqim. 2020. “Political, Religious and Social Unrest in Yemen in the 18th And 19th Centuries During the Late Ottoman Dynasty”. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 10 (2). https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.102.06.

References

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al-Alusi, Shihabuddin. Ruh Al-Ma’ani fi Tafsir Al-Qur’ān al-Azim wa al-Sab’ al-Masāni. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1997.
Annan, Zaid bin Ali. Tarikh Al-Yaman al-Qadīm. Beirut: Al-Mathba’a al-Salafiya, 1989.
al-Bagdadi, Abdel Qahir. Al-Farqu Baina al-Firaq. Cairo: Maktabah Ibnu Sina, 1989.
al-Bahr, Muhammad Ali. Tarīkh Al-Yaman al-Mu’ashir. Cairo: Maktabah al-Madbuli, 1990.
al-Dhiqah, Hasan. Al-Dawlah al-Uthmaniyah: Al-Thaqafa al-Mujtama Wa al-Sultah. Beirut: Dar al-Muntakhab al-Arabi, 1997.
al-Ghumari, Muhammad Hasan bin Ahmad. ‘Al-Imām al-Shawkani Mufassiran.’ Makkah: Risalah Dukturah--Jami’ah Ummu al-Qura Makkah, 1980.
al-Hamzi, Emadiden Idris. Tarikh Al-Yamen min Kitāb Kanz al-Akhbar Fi Ma’rifat al-Sair Wa al-Akhbār. Kuwait: Muassasah Sharra’ al-Arabi, 1999.
Hasan, Hasan Ibrahim. Tarikh Al-Islam: Al-Siyasi, Wa al-Dini, Wa al-Thaqafi, Wa al-Ijtima‘i. Beirut: Dar al-Jail, 1996.
Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs. Macmillan International Higher Education, 2002.
al-Ka’bi, Abdel Hakim. Al-Mawsuah al-Tarikh al-Islami, Vol. 1. Amman: Dar al-Usamah, 2009.
Marjuni, Kamaluddinn Nuruddin. Mauqif Al-Zaidiyah wa Ahl al-Sunnah min al-‘Aqidah al-Isma‘iliyah Wa Falsafatuha. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah, 2009.
al-Mas‘udi, Ali bin al-Husain. Murūj Al-Zahab Wa Ma‘adin al-Jauhar. Beirut: Al-Maktabah al-‘Asriyyah, 2005.
Numsuk, Abdullah bin Mustafa. Manhaj Al-Shawkani Fi al-Aqidah. Beirut: Dar al-Qalam, 1999.
al-Razi, Fakhruddin. Tafsir Mafatīh Al-Ghaib, Vol. VII. Cairo: Dar Al-Hadith, 2000.
al-Saedi, Abdelmutaal. Al-Mujaddidūn fi al-Islam min al-Qarn al-Awwal Ila al-Qarn al-Rabi‘ ‘Asyar. Cairo: Maktabah al-Adab, 1996.
Al-Salabi, Ali Muhammad. Al-Dawlah al-Uthmaniyah: ’Awamil al-Nuhūdh wa Asbāb al-Suqūt. Cairo: Dar al-Tawzi’ wa al-Nashr al-Islami, 2001.
al-Salman, Muhammad bin Abdullah. Da’wah al-Shekh Muhammad Bin ’Abdl al-Wahhab. Cairo: Al-Matba’ah al-Salafiyah, 1981.
al-Shahrastani, Abu al-Fath Muhammad. Milal Wa Nihal. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1996.
al-Shawkani, Muhammad bin Ali bin Muhammad. Al-Badr al-Tali.’ Vol. 1. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2007.
—. Al-Sayl al-Jarrar al-Mutadaffiqu ‘ala Hadaiq al-Azhar. Beirut: Dar Ibnu al-Kathir, 2012.
al-Shinawi, Abdel Aziz. Al-Dawlah al-Uthmaniyah: Dawlah Muftara ’Alaiha. Vol. 1. Cairo: Maktabah Englo Al-Misriya, 1980.
al-Shiraji, Abdul Ghani Qasim Ghalib. Al-Imām Al-Shawkani: Hayatuhu Wa Fikruhu. Beirut: Muassasah ar-Risalah, 2000.
Shukri, Muhammed Fuad. Al-Hamlah al-Faransiah Wa Khuruj al-Faransiyin Min Masr. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, n.d.
Tuqqus, Muhammad Suhail. Tarīkh Al-Dawlah al-Safawiya (Fi Iran). Lebanon: Dar al-Nafa’is, 2009.
al-‘Usairy, Ahmad. Al-Tarīkh Al-Islami. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 2014.
al-Yamani, Tajuddin Abdel Baqi. Tarīkh Al-Yaman. Sana’a: Dar al-Kalimah, 1985.
Zahrah, Abu. Al-Imam Zaid. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, 1987.
—. Tarikh Al-Mazahib al-Islamiyah. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, 1995.
al-Zirikli, Khair al-Din. Al-A‘lam Qamūs al-Tarajum. Vol. 6. Beirut: Dar Al-‘Ilm li al-Malayin, 2002.

Concept and Practice of Wahare among Contemporary Muslims in Nigeria: Are there Correlations with Qur’ān 4:20?


Islam allows restricted polygyny with four wives simultaneously hitherto the common unrestricted practices among the Arabs before the appointment of the Messenger of Allah in their midst. Having an unlimited number of wives was not peculiar to the Arab culture alone, many nations in Africa are known to uphold the same practice. However, on the contact with Islam, every Muslim is required not to have more than four wives, simultaneously. The non-Muslim husband of more than four wives would be legally required to reduce the number of his wives to four upon his conversion to Islam. However, in Africa and in Nigeria in particular, some Muslims exceed the stipulated number and seek justification from the verse 20th of Suratu’n- Nisā and tag the practice as wahare and ‘Istibdāl. Other advocates of the practice twist the interpretation of the particular verse (Q4:3) regarding the permissibility of polygyny in support of the said practice. In view of this background, this paper aims to find out if there are correlations between the practice of wahare and ‘Istibdāl and the verse in question. Interviews, observations and review of literature were implored in this study. It was identified that the two different approaches to the practice of wahare /’Istibdāl are not supported by the verse 20th of Suratu’n- Nisā.
Ali, Jawwad. Al-Mufassal fi Tarikh al-Arab Qabla al-Islam. Vol. 1. Bagdad: Jami’at Bagdad, 1993.
al-Alusi, Shihabuddin. Ruh Al-Ma’ani fi Tafsir Al-Qur’ān al-Azim wa al-Sab’ al-Masāni. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1997.
Annan, Zaid bin Ali. Tarikh Al-Yaman al-Qadīm. Beirut: Al-Mathba’a al-Salafiya, 1989.
al-Bagdadi, Abdel Qahir. Al-Farqu Baina al-Firaq. Cairo: Maktabah Ibnu Sina, 1989.
al-Bahr, Muhammad Ali. Tarīkh Al-Yaman al-Mu’ashir. Cairo: Maktabah al-Madbuli, 1990.
al-Dhiqah, Hasan. Al-Dawlah al-Uthmaniyah: Al-Thaqafa al-Mujtama Wa al-Sultah. Beirut: Dar al-Muntakhab al-Arabi, 1997.
al-Ghumari, Muhammad Hasan bin Ahmad. ‘Al-Imām al-Shawkani Mufassiran.’ Makkah: Risalah Dukturah--Jami’ah Ummu al-Qura Makkah, 1980.
al-Hamzi, Emadiden Idris. Tarikh Al-Yamen min Kitāb Kanz al-Akhbar Fi Ma’rifat al-Sair Wa al-Akhbār. Kuwait: Muassasah Sharra’ al-Arabi, 1999.
Hasan, Hasan Ibrahim. Tarikh Al-Islam: Al-Siyasi, Wa al-Dini, Wa al-Thaqafi, Wa al-Ijtima‘i. Beirut: Dar al-Jail, 1996.
Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs. Macmillan International Higher Education, 2002.
al-Ka’bi, Abdel Hakim. Al-Mawsuah al-Tarikh al-Islami, Vol. 1. Amman: Dar al-Usamah, 2009.
Marjuni, Kamaluddinn Nuruddin. Mauqif Al-Zaidiyah wa Ahl al-Sunnah min al-‘Aqidah al-Isma‘iliyah Wa Falsafatuha. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah, 2009.
al-Mas‘udi, Ali bin al-Husain. Murūj Al-Zahab Wa Ma‘adin al-Jauhar. Beirut: Al-Maktabah al-‘Asriyyah, 2005.
Numsuk, Abdullah bin Mustafa. Manhaj Al-Shawkani Fi al-Aqidah. Beirut: Dar al-Qalam, 1999.
al-Razi, Fakhruddin. Tafsir Mafatīh Al-Ghaib, Vol. VII. Cairo: Dar Al-Hadith, 2000.
al-Saedi, Abdelmutaal. Al-Mujaddidūn fi al-Islam min al-Qarn al-Awwal Ila al-Qarn al-Rabi‘ ‘Asyar. Cairo: Maktabah al-Adab, 1996.
Al-Salabi, Ali Muhammad. Al-Dawlah al-Uthmaniyah: ’Awamil al-Nuhūdh wa Asbāb al-Suqūt. Cairo: Dar al-Tawzi’ wa al-Nashr al-Islami, 2001.
al-Salman, Muhammad bin Abdullah. Da’wah al-Shekh Muhammad Bin ’Abdl al-Wahhab. Cairo: Al-Matba’ah al-Salafiyah, 1981.
al-Shahrastani, Abu al-Fath Muhammad. Milal Wa Nihal. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1996.
al-Shawkani, Muhammad bin Ali bin Muhammad. Al-Badr al-Tali.’ Vol. 1. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2007.
—. Al-Sayl al-Jarrar al-Mutadaffiqu ‘ala Hadaiq al-Azhar. Beirut: Dar Ibnu al-Kathir, 2012.
al-Shinawi, Abdel Aziz. Al-Dawlah al-Uthmaniyah: Dawlah Muftara ’Alaiha. Vol. 1. Cairo: Maktabah Englo Al-Misriya, 1980.
al-Shiraji, Abdul Ghani Qasim Ghalib. Al-Imām Al-Shawkani: Hayatuhu Wa Fikruhu. Beirut: Muassasah ar-Risalah, 2000.
Shukri, Muhammed Fuad. Al-Hamlah al-Faransiah Wa Khuruj al-Faransiyin Min Masr. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, n.d.
Tuqqus, Muhammad Suhail. Tarīkh Al-Dawlah al-Safawiya (Fi Iran). Lebanon: Dar al-Nafa’is, 2009.
al-‘Usairy, Ahmad. Al-Tarīkh Al-Islami. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 2014.
al-Yamani, Tajuddin Abdel Baqi. Tarīkh Al-Yaman. Sana’a: Dar al-Kalimah, 1985.
Zahrah, Abu. Al-Imam Zaid. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, 1987.
—. Tarikh Al-Mazahib al-Islamiyah. Cairo: Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, 1995.
al-Zirikli, Khair al-Din. Al-A‘lam Qamūs al-Tarajum. Vol. 6. Beirut: Dar Al-‘Ilm li al-Malayin, 2002.