A Comparative Study of the Personality Formulates of Ghazali and Freud


Dr. Tahira Basharat


This research is a comparative study of the types of nafs and the types of personality described by Ghazali and Freud, respectively. Types of personality described by Ghazali are al-nafs al-ammara, al-nafs al-lawwama and al-nafs al-mutma'inna. The types of personality according to Freud are id, ego and super-ego. Other faculties that help in training or shaping the types of nafs are rooh (soul), qalb (heart), and aql (mind). They also play a vital role in the functioning of id, ego and super-ego.

This article defines the above mentioned types of personality presented by both Ghazali and Freud. It also discusses their functions encompassing their differences and similarities and strives to find out if they complement each other. It was found that there is much similarity in both types of personality formulates. Id and nafs ammarah are the same, while nafs lawwama was found to be comprising both ego and super-ego. However, the concept of nafs mutma’innah is found only in Islamic theology.

Thematic and comparative study methods of qualitative research were used in this research. This is a literature based study. Ghazali’s study is based on the Qur’an and Sunnah. Hence, Ihya’ ‘Uloom-id-Deen and The Ego and The ID remain the major sources of this study.


How to Cite
Hanna-e-Kalbi, and Dr. Tahira Basharat. 2020. “A Comparative Study of the Personality Formulates of Ghazali and Freud”. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 10 (2). https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.102.13.


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