Ever since the emergence of Islam, mosque has always been the most dominant feature in any Islamic built environment. Over the course of time, mosque architecture has gone through a process of various forms of uses and expressions in terms of its transformation. Its style, layout, building form, type of ornamentation used, building materials and construction technology usually provide vital information not only about the practice of Islam in general but also about the timeline, prevailing geopolitical environment, religious conviction, purpose, need and the region in which the mosque was built. This research paper emphasizes the study of the general characteristics of the two earliest examples of mosques in Islamic architecture through extensive literature review. It also highlights the historical and geopolitical context, built form, size, shape, configuration, color, texture, materials used, scale and type of decorative elements of the two most outstanding and heavily restored mosques to date.
Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture. Edited by Dan Cruickshank. 20thedi. New Delhi, India: CBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt., 1996.
Gardner, Helen., Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya. Gardner's Art through the Ages. Belmont, CA: Thomson /Wadsworth, 2005.
Hoag, John D. Islamic Architecture:History of World Architecture. Milan: Electa Editrice, 1987.
Kaushik. Amusing Planet. “The Great Mosque of Samarra. “Last modified August 08, 2014. http://www.amusingplanet.com/2014/08/the-great-mosque-of-samarra.html
Omer, Spahic. “Some Lessons from Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in Architecture: The Prophets Mosque in Madinah.” Intellectual Discourse 18 (2010): 117-118. Accessed April 19, 2019, http://irep.iium.edu.my/12874/1/126.pdf
Seidel, Matthias., Regine Schulz. Art and Architecture: Egypt. Potsdam, Germany: H. F. Ullmann, 2005.
Sharp, Dennis. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Architects and Architecture. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1991.
Warner, Nicholas. The Monuments of Historic Cairo: A Map and Descriptive Catalogue. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2005.
Warner, Nicholas., and Zahi A Hawass. Guide to the Gayer-Anderson Museum Cairo. Cairo: Ministry of Culture. Supreme Council of Antiquities, 2003.
Williams, Caroline. Islamic Monuments in Cairo: The Practical Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2004.