Depression is a common psychological disorder and a major health issue. Many socioeconomic, environmental and genetic factors contribute to the onset and progression of depression. In recent years, the deficiency of vitamin D has emerged as a possible predisposing factor responsible for the manifestation of depression. In this review article, the causes of depression are briefly reviewed with a special focus on the association between vitamin D and depression. In recent years, the association between vitamin D and depression has been extensively investigated; still, the mechanism that governs this association is not fully understood. An understanding of the underlying biological processes and mechanisms through which vitamin D exerts its role will help in understanding the predisposition towards depression and the amelioration of depressive symptoms.
1- Grover S, Dutt A, and Avasthi A: An overview of Indian research in depression Indian J Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 52(Suppl1): S178–S188.
2- Ferrari AJ, Norman RE, Freedman G, et al. The burden attributable to mental and substance use disorders as risk factors for suicide: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e91936
3- Ahmed D, Helmi I El S, Taher E, Zyada F: Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among the elderly population living in geriatric homes in Cairo, Egypt 2014 Dec;89(3):127-35. J Egypt Public Health Assoc
4- Puthran R, Zhang MW, Tam WW, Ho RC. Prevalence of depression amongst medical students: a meta-analysis. Med Educ. 2016;50(4):456–468.
5- Rosen D, Mascaro N, Arnau R, Escamilla M , Ming T et al., Depression in Medical Students: Gene-Environment Interaction Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education ©2010 by the Association for the Behavioral Sciences and Medical Education 2010, Vol. 16, No. 2, 8-14 1075-1211/10 .
6- Alharbi H, Almalki A, Alabdan F, and Haddad B: Depression among medical students in Saudi medical colleges: a cross-sectional study Adv Med Educ Pract. 2018; 9: 887–891.
7- -George M and Wetzel E D. Depression among medical students Panel Volume 11, Issue 1, July–August 1986, Pages 91-96 Journal of affective disorder
8- Pham T, Bui L, Nguyen A, Nguyen B et al. : The prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among medical students: An untold story in Vietnam . PLoS One 2019 Aug 20;14(8):e0221432.
9- AlJaber M I: The prevalence and associated factors of depression among medical students of Saudi Arabia: A systematic review 2020 Jun 30;9(6):2608-2614. J Family Med Prim Care.
10- Young EA. Sex differences and the HPA axis: implications for psychiatric disease. J Gend Specif Med. 1998;1:21–27. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
11- Robb C E. , de Jager C A. , Ahmadi-Abhari S, Giannakopoulou et al, Associations of Social Isolation with Anxiety and Depression During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey of Older Adults in London, UK Front. Psychiatry, 17 September 2020
12- Heim C, Newport DJ, Mletzko T. The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:693–710
13- Gold PW, Chrousos GP. The endocrinology of melancholic and atypical depression: relation to neurocircuitry and somatic consequences. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians. 1999;111:22–34.
14- Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG. From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Rev Neurosci. 2008;9:46–56.
15- Hasler G : pathophysiology of depression: do we have any solid evidence of interest to clinicians? world psychiatry. 2010 oct; 9(3): 155–161.
16- Drevets WC, Frank E, Price JC. PET imaging of serotonin 1A receptor binding in depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:1375–1387.
17- Charney DS, Manji HK. Life stress, genes, and depression: multiple pathways lead to increased risk and new opportunities for intervention. Sci STKE. (re5) 2004
18- Pandey GN, Dwivedi Y. Noradrenergic function in suicide. Arch Suicide Res. 2007;11:235–246
19- Lambert G, Johansson M, Agren H. Reduced brain norepinephrine and dopamine release in treatment-refractory depressive illness: evidence in support of the catecholamine hypothesis of mood disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:787–793
20- Hasler G, van der Veen JW, Tumonis T. Reduced prefrontal glutamate/glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in major depression determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:193–200
21- Franzen PL & Buysse D J Sleep disturbances and depression: risk relationships for subsequent depression and therapeutic implications Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008 Dec; 10(4): 473–481
22- Vandeputte M, de Weerd A. Sleep disorders and depressive feelings: a global survey with the Beck depression scale. Sleep Med. 2003;4:343–345.
23- Bunney WE, Bunney BG. Molecular clock genes in man and lower animals: possible implications for circadian abnormalities in depression. Neuropychopharmacology. 2000; 22:335–345.
24- Matthews T, Danese A, Wertz J, Odgers L. et al: Social isolation, loneliness and depression in young adulthood: a behavioural genetic analysis Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016; 51: 339–348. Published online 2016 Feb 3.
25- Nair R and Maseeh A: Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012 Apr-Jun; 3(2): 118–126.
26- Nimitphong H, Holick MF. Vitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetence. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011; 14(1):7–14.
27- Anjum I, Syeda S Jaffery, Fayyaz M, Samoo Z and Anjum S The Role of Vitamin D in Brain Health: A Mini Literature Review Cureus. 2018 Jul; 10(7): e2960.
28- Lorincz C, Manske SL, Zernicke R. Sports Health. Vol. 1. US: Office of the Surgeon General (US); 2009. Bone health: part 1, nutrition; pp. 253–260.
29- Whiteman H Vitamin D deficiency linked to poor brain function, death after cardiac arrest. [Jul;2018 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/283971
30- Berridge MJ. Vitamin D cell signalling in health and disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;460:53–71.
31- Hossein-Nezhad A, Holick MF. Vitamin d for health: a global perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(7):720–755.
32- Cui X, Gooch H, Groves NJ Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research., et al. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;148:305–309
33- Jenkins T A.,1,* Nguyen J C. D.,1 Polglaze K E. 1 and Bertrand P. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis Nutrients. 2016 Jan; 8(1): 56.
34- Kempermann G, Song H, Gage FH. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;7:0. .
35- Kesby JP, Turner KM, Alexander S, Eyles DW, McGrath JJ, Burne THJ Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain.. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017;62:1–7.
36- Berridge MJ. Vitamin D and depression: cellular and regulatory mechanisms. Pharmacol Rev. 2017;69:80–92
37- Bathina S and Das U N. Arch Med Sci. 2015 Dec 10; 11(6): 1164–1178. Brain derived neurotrophic factor and its clinical implications
38- Banerjee D Social isolation in Covid-19: The impact of loneliness Internaional Journal of Social Psychiatry 66(9):002076402092226