Narrative Review of Factors Affecting Lower Back Pain among Workers in Pakistan


Ayesha Arooj
Aamir Aziz
Fariha Khalid
M. Hussain Iqbal


According to the world health organization (WHO), lower back pain (LBP) is the most common health
hazard among workers and is among the top ten health hazards around the globe. The Global Burden of
Disease (GBD) 2010 stated LBP as amongst the top 6 diseases which cause disability injuries and other
chronic diseases. This is the impairment that poses the most economic burden on society as a whole,
including individuals, businesses, and the government. This study aims to find out the factors that affect
lower back pain among workers associated with different professions in Pakistan. Data were collected
from different databases, such as PubMed, Google scholar, and PEDro by using a predefined search
strategy with proper Boolean terms ‘AND’ or ‘OR’ or ‘NOT’. The data were collected from the
literature available for past 10 years. Additionally, articles with relevant material and titles were
reviewed for conducting the current research review. The most common risk factors that were seen
almost among all professions were static position and prolonged working hours, any work that demands
prolonged standing or sitting, bending or twisting, and improper lifting. Several professional workers are
at high risk for developing LBP but among all the professions physiotherapists, sonographers, bankers,
and shopkeepers were at higher verge for developing LBP. It was found that the prevalence of LBP is
increasing day by day and significantly affecting workers in every profession. Therefore, timely
trainings with proper ergonomic techniques could decrease LBP and increase economic productivity in
Pakistan. It can be said that good ergonomics for good economics.


How to Cite
Arooj, A., Aziz, A., Khalid, F., & Iqbal, M. H. (2022). Narrative Review of Factors Affecting Lower Back Pain among Workers in Pakistan. BioScientific Review, 4(3), 1-17.