How Tmrt Affects PET Assessment in Outdoor Environments: A Comparative Study
AbstractAbstract Views: 209
Many studies have explored outdoor thermal comfort during the last several years, ever since it has been strongly related to human health and well-being. The physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is one of the most commonly used thermal comfort indexes. It has been approved and applied within different urban spaces and climates. This study is a comparative research that explored the importance of using mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) in PET assessment by employing two different methods. The first method was used to calculate PET based on three measured variables including relative humidity, wind velocity, and air temperature. RayMan software was utilized to perform the calculations. The second method was used to calculate PET by combining Envi-met and RayMan. Envi-met allowed four sets of calibrated data, including the data of air temperature (Ta), wind velocity (Wv), relative humidity (RH), and mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). RayMan software used the calibrated results to calculate PET. These methods were explored in outdoor environments at Annaba, Algeria, characterized by a Mediterranean climate. The results showed significant differences in PET values, especially through the warmest times of the day. The first method highlighted very high PET values, where 40 ≤PET<51 at noon. At the same time, using Tmrt gave precise PET values (30≤PET ≤32). Based on these findings, we can confirm the importance of considering Tmrt in PET calculation, which allows one to identify the accurate comfort range.
Keywords: Algeria, Mean Radiant Temperature (Tmrt), mediterranean climate, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), thermal comfort
Acero, J. A., & Herranz-Pascual, K. (2015). A comparison of thermal comfort conditions in four urban spaces by means of measurements and modelling techniques. Building and Environment, 93, 245–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.06.028
Ali-Toudert, F., & Mayer, H. (2006). Numerical study on the effects of aspect ratio and orientation of an urban street canyon on outdoor thermal comfort in hot and dry climate. Building and Environment, 41(2), 94–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.013
Andreou, E. (2013). Thermal comfort in outdoor spaces and urban canyon microclimate. Renewable Energy, 55, 182–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.12.040
Berkovic, S., Yezioro, A., & Bitan, A. (2012). Study of thermal comfort in courtyards in a hot arid climate. Solar Energy, 86(5), 1173–1186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.01.010
Bughio, M., Khan, M. S., Mahar, W. A., & Schuetze, T. (2021). Impact of passive energy efficiency measures on cooling energy demand in an architectural campus building in Karachi, Pakistan. Sustainability, 13(13), 7251. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137251
Bughio, M., Schuetze, T., & Mahar, W. A. (2020). Comparative analysis of indoor environmental quality of architectural campus buildings’ lecture halls and its’ perception by building users, in Karachi, Pakistan. Sustainability, 12(7), 2995. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072995
Chen, L., & Ng, E. (2013). Simulation of the effect of downtown greenery on thermal comfort in subtropical climate using PET index: A case study in Hong Kong. Architectural Science Review, 56(4), 297–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/00038628.2012.684871
Chen, Y.-C., Lin, T.-P., & Matzarakis, A. (2014). Comparison of mean radiant temperature from field experiment and modelling: A case study in Freiburg, Germany. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 118(3), 535–551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-1081-z
Cohen, P., Potchter, O., & Matzarakis, A. (2013). Human thermal perception of Coastal Mediterranean outdoor urban environments. Applied Geography, 37, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.11.001
de Freitas, C. R., & Grigorieva, E. A. (2015). A comprehensive catalogue and classification of human thermal climate indices. International Journal of Biometeorology, 59(1), 109–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0819-3
Elnabawi, M. H., Hamza, N., & Dudek, S. (2013, August). Use and evaluation of the ENVI-met model for two different urban forms in Cairo, Egypt: measurements and model simulations. In 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Chambéry, France.
Elnabawi, M. H., Hamza, N., & Dudek, S. (2016). Thermal perception of outdoor urban spaces in the hot arid region of Cairo, Egypt. Sustainable Cities and Society, 22, 136–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2016.02.005
Fiala, D., Havenith, G., Bröde, P., Kampmann, B., & Jendritzky, G. (2012). UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation. International Journal of Biometeorology, 56(3), 429–441.
Gulyás, Á., Unger, J., & Matzarakis, A. (2006). Assessment of the microclimatic and human comfort conditions in a complex urban environment: Modelling and measurements. Building and Environment, 41(12), 1713–1722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.07.001
Höppe, P. (1999). The physiological equivalent temperature – a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. International Journal of Biometeorology, 43(2), 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004840050118
Hwang, R.-L., Lin, T.-P., & Matzarakis, A. (2011). Seasonal effects of urban street shading on long-term outdoor thermal comfort. Building and Environment, 46(4), 863–870. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.10.017
Ibrahim, H. S. S., Khan, A. Z., Mahar, W. A., Attia, S., & Serag, Y. (2021). Assessment of Passive Retrofitting Scenarios in Heritage Residential Buildings in Hot, Dry Climates. Energies, 14(11), 3359. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113359
Jendritzky, G., de Dear, R., & Havenith, G. (2012). UTCI—Why another thermal index? International Journal of Biometeorology, 56(3), 421–428. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-011-0513-7
Jendritzky, G., Staiger, H., Bucher, K., Graetz, A., & Laschewski, G. (2000). The perceived temperature: The method of the deutscher wetterdienst for the assessment of cold stress and heat load for the human body. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Perceived-Temperature-%3A-The-Method-of-the-forJendritzkyStaiger/f62308d669ed828021e90450c002f4e89d5355cd
Ketterer, C., & Matzarakis, A. (2014). Human-biometeorological assessment of heat stress reduction by replanning measures in Stuttgart, Germany. Landscape and Urban Planning, 122, 78–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.11.003
Klemm, W., Heusinkveld, B. G., Lenzholzer, S., Jacobs, M. H., & Van Hove, B. (2015). Psychological and physical impact of urban green spaces on outdoor thermal comfort during summertime in The Netherlands. Building and Environment, 83, 120–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.05.013
Köppen, W. (2020). Die klimate der erde: Grundriss der klimakunde. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.
Lai, D., Zhou, C., Huang, J., Jiang, Y., Long, Z., & Chen, Q. (2014). Outdoor space quality: A field study in an urban residential community in central China. Energy and Buildings, 68, 713–720. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.02.051
Lee, H., Mayer, H., & Chen, L. (2016). Contribution of trees and grasslands to the mitigation of human heat stress in a residential district of Freiburg, Southwest Germany. Landscape and Urban Planning, 148, 37–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.12.004
Lin, T.-P., Tsai, K.-T., Liao, C.-C., & Huang, Y.-C. (2013). Effects of thermal comfort and adaptation on park attendance regarding different shading levels and activity types. Building and Environment, 59, 599–611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.10.005
Liu, W., Zhang, Y., & Deng, Q. (2016). The effects of urban microclimate on outdoor thermal sensation and neutral temperature in hot-summer and cold-winter climate. Energy and Buildings, 128, 190–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.06.086
Lobaccaro, G., & Acero, J. A. (2015). Comparative analysis of green actions to improve outdoor thermal comfort inside typical urban street canyons. Urban Climate, 14, 251–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2015.10.002
Mahar, W. A. (2021). Methodology for the design of climate-responsive houses for improved thermal comfort in cold semi-arid climates [Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique].
Mahar, W. A., & Attia, S. (2018). Indoor thermal comfort in residential building stock: A study of RCC houses in Quetta, Pakistan. Sustainable Building Design (SBD) Lab, University of Liège.
Mahar, W. A., Verbeeck, G., Singh, M. K., & Attia, S. (2019). An Investigation of Thermal Comfort of Houses in Dry and Semi-Arid Climates of Quetta, Pakistan. Sustainability, 11(19), 5203. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195203
Matallah, M. E., Mahar, W. A., Bughio, M., Alkama, D., Ahriz, A., & Bouzaher, S. (2021). Prediction of climate change effect on outdoor thermal comfort in arid region. Energies, 14(16), 4730. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164730
Matzarakis, A., Rutz, F., & Mayer, H. (2007). Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments—Application of the RayMan model. International Journal of Biometeorology, 51(4), 323–334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-006-0061-8
Mayer, H. (1993). Urban bioclimatology. Experientia, 49(11), 957–963. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02125642
Morakinyo, T. E., Kong, L., Lau, K. K.-L., Yuan, C., & Ng, E. (2017). A study on the impact of shadow-cast and tree species on in-canyon and neighborhood’s thermal comfort. Building and Environment, 115, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.01.005
Müller, N., Kuttler, W., & Barlag, A.-B. (2014). Counteracting urban climate change: Adaptation measures and their effect on thermal comfort. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 115(1), 243–257. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0890-4
Potchter, O., Cohen, P., Lin, T.-P., & Matzarakis, A. (2018). Outdoor human thermal perception in various climates: A comprehensive review of approaches, methods and quantification. Science of The Total Environment, 631–632, 390–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.276
Semahi, S., Benbouras, M. A., Mahar, W. A., Zemmouri, N., & Attia, S. (2020). Development of Spatial Distribution Maps for Energy Demand and Thermal Comfort Estimation in Algeria. Sustainability, 12(15), 6066. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156066
Staiger, H., Laschewski, G., & Grätz, A. (2012). The perceived temperature – a versatile index for the assessment of the human thermal environment. Part A: Scientific basics. International Journal of Biometeorology, 56(1), 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-011-0409-6
Taleghani, M., & Berardi, U. (2018). The effect of pavement characteristics on pedestrians’ thermal comfort in Toronto. Urban Climate, 24, 449–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2017.05.007
Tan, Z., Lau, K. K.-L., & Ng, E. (2016). Urban tree design approaches for mitigating daytime urban heat island effects in a high-density urban environment. Energy and Buildings, 114, 265–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.06.031
VDI.(2008).Guideline 3787-2: Environmental Meteorology-Methods for the Human Biometeorological Evaluation of Climate and Air Quality for Urban and Regional Planning at Regional Level: Part I: Climate. VDI/DIN Handbuch Reinhaltung der Luft, Band 1B: Umweltmeteorologie; Beuth-Verlag:
Watanabe, S., Nagano, K., Ishii, J., & Horikoshi, T. (2014). Evaluation of outdoor thermal comfort in sunlight, building shade, and pergola shade during summer in a humid subtropical region. Building and Environment, 82, 556–565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.10.002
Wu, Z., & Chen, L. (2017). Optimizing the spatial arrangement of trees in residential neighborhoods for better cooling effects: Integrating modeling with in-situ measurements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 167, 463–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.07.015
Zölch, T., Maderspacher, J., Wamsler, C., & Pauleit, S. (2016). Using green infrastructure for urban climate-proofing: An evaluation of heat mitigation measures at the micro-scale. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 20, 305–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.09.011
Copyright (c) 2022 Kahina Labdaoui, Waqas Ahmed Mahar, Sabeen Qureshi, Sohrab Ahmed Marri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
JAABE follows an open-access publishing policy and full text of all published articles is available free, immediately upon publication of an issue. The journal’s contents are published and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) license. Thus, the work submitted to the journal implies that it is original, unpublished work of the authors (neither published previously nor accepted/under consideration for publication elsewhere). On acceptance of a manuscript for publication, a corresponding author on the behalf of all co-authors of the manuscript will sign and submit a completed Copyright and Author Consent Form.
Copyright (c) The Authors