A Multidimensional Analysis of Pakistani English Written Discourse

  • Isra Irshad University of Gujrat- Gujrat, Pakistan
  • Behzad Anwar University of Gujrat- Gujrat, Pakistan
Keywords: Linguistic variation, Pakistani English, written discourse, Biber’s approach, Multidimensional analysis, linguistic patterns, co-occurrence


Abstract Views: 610

The present study analyzes Pakistani English written discourse through multidimensional analysis. For this purpose, two corpora types, including Pakistani universities' newsletters and Pakistani human rights NGOs' annual reports, have been complied. It has been investigated how the language of newsletters of Pakistani universities differs from that of annual reports of Pakistani human rights NGOs on D1 and D2 of the multidimensional approach. Biber’s (1988) multidimensional analysis provides the theoretical grounding to the present study. MAT software (1.3) has been used to tag and analyze the data. Co-occurrences of linguistic features are quantitatively analyzed and then qualitatively interpreted through D1 and D2 of multidimensional approach. The results reveal that the language of this written discourse of Pakistani English is informational on D1. By comparing it with Biber's work of 1988, it has been revealed that this genre is close to the official documents on D1. The language of Pakistani universities' newsletter is more informational on this dimension than that of the genre of Pakistani NGOs annual reports as the mean scores for both are -26.79 and -25.13, respectively. The analysis of the D2 indicates that the genre of the selected written discourse is non-narrative. However, Pakistani universities' newsletters are close to broadcasts, whereas the annual reports of human rights NGOs are close to the personal letters. Moreover, the newsletters discourse is strongly non-narrative than that of the annual reports.

Keywords: Linguistic variation; Pakistani English; written discourse, Biber’s approach, Multidimensional analysis; linguistic patterns; co-occurrence


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad, S. and Mahmood, M. A.2015. Comparing explicit features of Pakistani press reportage with British press reportage: A multidimensional analysis. NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry 13(1): 9-35.

Amjad, T., and Shakir, A. 2014. Study of information generating linguistic features in onlineuniversity prospectuses. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences4(25): 122-127.

Alvi, U., Mehmood, M. A., and Rasool, S. 2016. A multidimensional analysis of Pakistani Press Editorials. The Dialogue 11(3): 270-284.

Asghar, S. A., Mahmood, M. A., and Asghar, Z. M. 2018. A multidimensional analysis of Pakistani Legal English. International Journal of English Linguistics8(5): 215.

Biber, D. 1988. Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Biber, D. 1993. The multidimensional approach to linguistic analyses of genre variation: An overview of methodology and findings. Computers and the Humanities26(1): 331-345.

Biber, D., and Finegan, E. 1994. Multidimensional analyses of authors' styles: Somecase studies from the eighteenth century. Research in Humanities Computing3(1): 3-17.

Concord, S. 1996. Investigating academic text with corpus based techniques: An examplefrom Biology. Linguistics and Education8(3): 299-326.

Egbert, J. 2012. Style in nineteenth century fiction: A multidimensional analysis.Scientific Study of Literature2(2): 167-198.

Nawaz, N. and Shakir, A., 2014. Significance of non-narrative features in online universityprospectus of Pakistan: A corpus based investigation. Research on Humanities andSocial Sciences4(1): 128-137.

Rashid, A. and Mahmood, M.A. 2019. Linguistic variations across disciplines: A multidimensional analysis of Pakistani research articles. Global Social Sciences Review 4(1): 34-48.

Reppen, R. 2001. Register variation in student and adult speech and writing. In Variation inEnglish: Multidimensional studies, eds. S. Conrad and D. Biber, 187-199. London: Longman.

Uzair, M. 2011. The role of Pakistani English newspapers in promoting the Pakistani variety of English. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad.

How to Cite
Isra Irshad, & Behzad Anwar. (2021). A Multidimensional Analysis of Pakistani English Written Discourse. Linguistics and Literature Review, 7(1), 69-82. https://doi.org/10.32350/llr.71.06