The Acoustic Effect of Urdu Phonological Rules on English Speech
AbstractAbstract Views: 525
The paper is about the acoustic effect of Urdu phonological rules on Pakistani Urdu speakers' English speech. The objective of the study is to discuss the phenomenon of multiple pronunciations of an English word that has the same spellings, meaning, and part of speech but different pronunciations in the English speech of Urdu speakers. Sometimes these alternative pronunciations are considered mispronunciation rather than multiple pronunciations. The primary purpose of this study is to make a boundary-line between mispronunciations and multiple pronunciations of English vocabulary. Thus, an acoustic analysis of Urdu speakers' English speech has been done by collecting speech data of 30 Urdu speakers from the Public sector universities of Pakistan. Consequently, this paper caters to language-dependent variations of Urdu. This paper only deals with three phonological rules, i.e., segment alternation, ellipsis, epenthesis, which become the cause for re-syllabification of English words. These three foci of research have been selected because the data analysis has confirmed that the 'multiple pronunciation' is mainly occurred due to these three elements. These three categories cover several sub-categories that cover many instances in the data analysis. The data also confirms that phonological variations occur due to stress shifting in Urdu speakers' English speech in Pakistan.Keywords: Multiple pronunciations, phonological rules, epenthesis, ellipsis, segment alternation, re-syllabification
Akram, B. 2002. Analysis of Urdu syllabification usingMaximal Onset Principle and Sonority Sequence Principle. 160-166. Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing.
Crystal, D. 2003. English as a Global Language.
Dickson, and Andrew. 2018. Oxford English Dictionary. (Oxford Press) Retrieved January 2021,from Oxford English Dictionaryhttps://www.oed.com/
Farooq, M. 2015. An acoustic phonetic study of six accents of Urdu in Pakistan. Retrieved from https://www.cle.org.pk/Publication/theses/2014/An%20Acoustic%20Phonetic%20Study%20of%20Six%20Accents%20of%20Urdu%20in%20Pakistan.pdf
Farooq, M. 2021. Acoustic effect of indigenous languageson English in Pakistan (unpublished thesis). Government College University, Faisalabad,Pakistan.
Farooq, M., and Mahmood, A. M. 2020. Ellipsis in Urdu content words. Journal of Hamdard Islamicus 43(S-2 (2020): 1646-1656. Retrieved Jan. 2021 https://hamdardislamicus.com.pk/journal/index.php/hamdardislamicus/issue/view/10
Farooq, M., and Mahmood, M. A. 2020. Epenthesis in Urdu. Journal of Hamdard Islamicus 43(1): 771-781. Retrieved Jan. 2021, from https://hamdardislamicus.com.pk/journal/index.php/hamdardislamicus/issue/view/6
Farooq, M., and Mumtaz, B. 2016. Urdu phonological rules in connected speech.Conference of Lanaguage and Technology.Lahore: Center for Language Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.
Farooq, M., Mahmood, M. A.,and Ali, A. 2020. Re-syllabification and multiple pronunciations in Urdu. Journal of Al-Qalam 25(1): 290-310.
Finch, G. 2000. Phonetics and Phonology. In Linguistic Terms and Concepts, eds. J. Peck, & M. Coyle, 1(1): 33-76. New York: St. Martin's Press, INC.
Habib, W., Hijab, R., Hussain, S., and Adeeba, F. 2014. Design of speech corpus for open domainUrdu text to speech system usingGreedy algorithm.Conference on Language and Technology.Karachi, Pakistan.
Hall, C. K. 2005. Defining phonologicalrules over lexical neighbourhoods:Evidence from Canadian raising. In Proceeding of the 24th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, eds. J. Alderete, C. -h. Han, & A. Kochetov, 191-199. Somerville MA:Cascadilla Press.
Haq, D. A., Siddiqi, D. A.-u.-L., Sabzvari, D. S., Amrohvi, Naseem, M., and Arif, M. 2013. Urdu lughat: Tarixi Usuul Per(3rd ed.), 1-22. Muhit e Urdu Press, Urdu Lughat Board, Karachi. Retrieved from http://udb.gov.pk/
Hulst, H. V. 1979. Rule conversion in phonology. Dutch Lexicological Institute Leiden, 336-349. Retrieved from https://www.cle.org.pk/clt16/Presentations/Urdu%20Phonological%20Rules%20in%20Connected%20Speech.pdf
Hulst, H. V.,and Weijer, J. V. 1991. Topics in Turkish phonology. Retrieved from https://harry-van-der-hulst.uconn.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1733/2016/05/046-Topics-in-Turkish-Phonology.pdf
Hussain, S. 2005. Phonological processing for Urdu text to speech system. Localisation in Pakistan, in Localisation Focus: The International Journal for Localisation 3(4).Retrieved from https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/30926976/phonological-processing-for-urdu-text-to-speech-system
Jehsen, J. T. 2004. Distinctive features. In Principles of Generative Phonology,eds. J. T. Jehsen, & K. E. Korener, 79-106. The Netherlands, USA: John Benjamins Publishing Company,Amsterdam/Phila Delphia
John, O. J. 1980. The application of phonological universals in speech pathology. Phonology Laboratory, Department of Linguistics,University of California, Berklay, California. doi:/10.1016/B978-0-12-608603-4.50009-3
Kahn, D. 1976. Syllable based generalizations in English phonology. Doctoral dissertation,Departmentof Foreign Literatures and Linguistic, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Kirkpatrick, A. 2010. The Routledge handbook ofWorld Englishes.London and Newyork: Taylor & Francis Group.
Kreiman, J., Sidtis, D. V., and Gerratt, B. 2014. Defining and measuring voice quality. Sound to Sense, 163-168. New York, USA: MIT.
Mendoza, D. R. 2012. Phonological progresses.Philippines.
Mumtaz, B., Hussain, A., Hussain, S., Mahmood, A., Bhatti, R., Farooq, M., and Rauf, S. 2014. Multitier annotationof Urduspeech corpus.5th Conference on Language and Technology.Karachi.
Murcia, M. C., Brinton, D. M., and Janet, M. 2010. Teaching pronunciation hardback with audio CDs (2)InA Course Book and Reference Guide(2nd, illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nawaz, S. 2002. Deletion rules in Urdu language.Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing.Lahore: National University of Computers and Emerging Sciences.
Odden, D. 2005. Feature theory. In Introducing Phonology,ed. D. Odden, 129-168. Cambridge, NewYork: Cambridge University Press.
Ohala, J. J. 1980. The application of phonological universals in speech pathology. Speech and Language: Advances in Basic Research and Practice 3(0-12-608603-6): 75-94.
Panevov, J., and Hana, J. 2010. Intro to linguistics-Phonology.1-5, Retrieved September 28, 2015https://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/~hana/teaching/2013wi-ling/04-Phonology.pdf
Roach, P. 2009. English phonetics and phonology:A practical course(4th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Saddiqa, A. 2018. The role of Pashto (as L1) and Urdu (as L2) in English language learning,Linguistics and Literature Review 4(1): 1-17
Sa’d, S. H. 2018. World English andworld Englishes: Perspectives from English language learners in Iran. Journal of World Languages, 1-23. doi:10.1080/21698252.2018.1500151
Trigo, P. 2006. LX 513 Phonology. Hindi (GP), 175-76. (A. Grauer, Ed.)
Waqar, A., and Waqar, S. 2002. Identification of diphthongs in Urdu and their acoustic properties. 16-26. Lahore, Pakistan: Center for Language Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.
Zia, W. (Ed.). 2011. Pakistan 6th population and housing census-Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.paknetmag.blogspot.com/2011/..../2011-pakistan-6th-population
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.