Parents’ Knowledge and Practices Regarding Stress Management in School Children of District Rawalpindi, Pakistan

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Afshan Rani
Sehar Rashid
Mudassir Anwar

Abstract

This study aimed to measure the knowledge of parents and identified their practices regarding stress management in their school going children. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in District Rawalpindi, Pakistan using an online questionnaire. The population size consisted of all the parents of school going children in District Rawalpindi. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS software by applying t-test and one-way ANOVA. The difference between parents’ knowledge about stress and their stress management strategies was evaluated on the basis of demographic variables. The current study calculated a higher percentage (57.3%) of parents’ scores on the overall knowledge scale, although more than half of the parents ­ exhibited poor knowledge on two subscales, that is, stress (52.4%) and stress management strategies (61.2%). The scores of older parents were significantly higher than the younger ones. Good nutrition, proper meals, and proper rest were identified as the most commonly practiced stress management strategies. It was determined that opposite genders and different age groups were practicing similar strategies, with no statistically significant difference in scores on the practices of stress management scale. Lack of proper knowledge and wrong practices indulged in by a large number of parents highlight the need for awareness campaigns to improve parents’ knowledge regarding stress and management practices in their children.


Keywords: parents’ knowledge, Pakistan, school children, stress management

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

References

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2020, December 29). Helping children handle stress. American Academy of Pediatrics. www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/emotional-wellness/Pages/Helping-Children-Handle-Stress.aspx
American Psychological Association (2022, July 6). Identifying signs of stress in your children and teens. American Psychological Association. www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-children.aspx
Bethune, S. (2014). American psychological association survey shows teen stress rivals that of adults. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/02/teen-stress
Balog, J. E., & Balog, L. F. (1991). Stress management for children: A guide for Parents. Brockport Bookshelf.
Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., Bettis, A. H., Watson, K. H., Gruhn, M., Dunbar, J. P., Williams, E., & Thigpen, J. C. (2017). Coping, emotion regulation and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic and narrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 143(9), 939-991. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000110
Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A. H., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1), 87–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.1.87
Grippo, A. (2016, January 20). Why stress is both good and bad. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-wide-wide-world-psychology/201601/why-stress-is-both-good-and-bad
Gumucio, S., Merica, M., Luhmann, N., Fauvel, G., Zompi, S., Ronsse, A., Fauvel, G., Courcaud, A., Bouchon, M., Trehin, C., Schapman, S., & Ronsse, R. (2011). Data collection quantitative methods, the KAP survey model (knowledge, attitude and practices). IGC Communigraphie, 4-7. https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=e230148f-a111-4153-8c5e-25fd1640e246
Hussain, N., Creed, F., & Tomonson, B. (2000). Depression and social stress in Pakistan. Psychological Medicine, 30(2), 395-402. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700001707
Krans, B. (2014). Stigma still a major hurdle in getting people the mental health care they need. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health-news/mental-health-treatment-hindered-by-stigma-030214
Latona, V. (2005). Coping with child stress: What causes stress for your child and how to help. Parents. https://www.parents.com/kids/education/tests/coping-with-child-stress/
National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.) 5 things you should know about stress. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/stress/index.shtml
O’Grady, L. (2018, March 22). How to help kids cope with stress at home. Psychlopaedia. https://psychlopaedia.org/family-and-relationships/how-to-help-kids-cope-with-stress-at-home/
Parpio, Y., Farooq, S., Gulzar, S., Tharani, A., Javed, F., & Ali, T. S. (2012). Factors associated with stress among adolescents in the city of Nawabshah, Pakistan. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 62(11), 1209-13.
Power, T. G. (2004). Stress and coping in childhood: The parents' role. Parenting: Science and Practice, 4(4), 271-317. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327922par0404_1
Resnick, M. D., Harris, L. J., Blum, R. W. (1993). The impact of caring and connectedness on adolescent health and well-being. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, 29(s1), S3–S9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1754.1993.tb02257.x
Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones J, Tabor, J., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R. E., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L.H., & Udry, J.R. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. JAMA, 278(10), 823–832. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03550100049038
Stephens, K. (2007). Parenting exchange: Stress management for children promotes good mental health. Eastern Florida. https://www.easternflorida.edu/community-resources/child-development-centers/parent-resource-library/documents/stress-management-for-children.pdf
Student Health Service. (2014). How to develop the Emotional Quotient of your child. Department of Health, Govt. of Hong Kong. https://www.studenthealth.gov.hk/english/health/health_ph/health_ph_ei.html
Usman, A. (2012, May 26). Mental disorders: Taboo topic. Dawn. https://www.dawn.com/news/721593/mental-disorders-taboo-topic
Vanaelst, B., De Vriendt, T., Huybrechts, I. Rinaldi, S., Henauw, S. D. (2012). Epidemiological approaches to measure childhood stress. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, 26(3), 280–297. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01258.x
Villines, Z. (2015). Kids may be more stressed than parents think. Good Therapy. https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/kids-may-be-more-stressed-than-parents-think-0826151
Volling, B. L. (2012). Family transitions following the birth of a sibling: an empirical review of changes in the firstborn's adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 138(3), 497-528. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026921
Wolchik, S. A., & Sandler, I. N. (Eds.). (1997). Handbook of children’s coping: Linking theory and intervention. Plenum.
Youngs, B. B. (2011). Stress and your child. Ballantine Books.