Availability of Reformative Education Programmes for Prisoners in North West Nigeria

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Dr. Suleiman Ismaila

Abstract

The study investigated the availability of reformative education programs for prisoners in northwest Nigeria. A descriptive survey was the adopted research design. The target population comprised the stakeholders (prison inmates, prison officials, lawyers, and human rights activists) from four states (Kaduna, Katsina, Jigawa, and Kano) northwest Nigeria. A total of 13 prisons, 1338 respondents (1068 inmates; 200 prison officials; 50 lawyers; and 20 human rights activists) were selected using multi-stage sampling. Four questionnaires designed by the researcher were used for data collection dedicating one questionnaire to each of the stakeholders. The validity of the instruments was ascertained using content and construct validity. The calculated value of Cronbach Alpha was 0.87. The data collected from the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The hypotheses were tested using chi-square. The findings of the study revealed that out of the five indicators of prisoners' reformative education, only one was available, that is, religious education. However, the other four, facilities, personnel, and reading materials; educational continuity and motivation; remedial and adult education, and vocational education were unavailable. The study recommended that prisons should be equipped with modern facilities for valuable reformative education. There should be training and retraining of prison personnel, and a well-stocked library with current and updated materials containing textbooks, periodicals and computers be provided in all prisons for the use of both inmates and prison officials, among others.

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

References

Achakzai, J. K., Bukhari, S., & Tahir, M. A. (2015). Women prisoners’ access to education and training: A report from Balochistan. Bulletin of Education and Research, 37(2), 27–42.
Adeyeye, B. A. (2019). Challenges and prospects of e-learning for prison education in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 15(25), 327–335.
Ahmad, I. (2019, November 13). State of prisons. The NEWS International. Retrieved from https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/554812-state-of-prisons
Ali, A. (2006). Conducting research in education and the social sciences. Enugu-Nigeria: Tashiwa networks.
Aliyu, K., Mustaffa, J., & Nasir, N. M. (2016). An evaluation of prison educational programmes in Kwara State Nigeria. Association of Sociologists of Education of Nigeria, 8(1), 103–120.
Allred, S. L., Harrison, L. D., & O’connell, D. J. (2013). Self-efficacy: An important aspect of prison-based learning. The Prison Journal, 93(2), 211–233.
Armstrong, R., & Ludlow, A. (2016). Educational partnerships between universities and prisons: How learning together can be individually, socially and institutionally transformative. Prison Service Journal, 225, 9–17.
Aziz, T., Iqbal, M. J., & Ahmed, S. Z. (2017). Role of education in prisons for rehabilitation of inmates of prisons. Paper presented at the MDSRC-2017 Proceedings, 27-28 December, 2017 Wah/Pakistan.
Brown, M., & Schept, J. (2017). New abolition, criminology and a critical carceral studies. Punishment & Society, 19(4), 440–462.
Bumiller, K. (2013). Transformative learning in prisons and universities: Reflections on homologies of institutional power. In S. Davis & B. Roswell (Eds.). Turning teaching inside out (pp. 177-186). Dordrecht: Springer.
Bryman, A. (2016). Social Research Methods. 5th ed. London; Oxford University Press.
Cavallaro, A. (2019). Making citizens behind bars (and the stories we tell about it): Queering approaches to prison literacy programs. Literacy in Composition Studies, 7(1), 1–21.
Darke, S., & Aresti, A. (2016). Connecting prisons and universities through higher education. Prison Service Journal, 225, 26–32.
Dilek, H.-K., & Demir, G. (2014). Prison libraries in Turkey: The results of a national survey. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 46(2), 130–138.
Faizi, W. U. N., Shakeel, A. F., & Karim, R. A. (2017). Sustainable opportunities of educational facilities provided to the imprisoned women’s children in Karachi’s central jail. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 106–111.
Farley, H., & Pike, A. (2016). Engaging prisoners in education: Reducing risk and recidivism. Journal of the International Corrections and Prison Association, 1, 65–73.
Farley, H., Pike, A., Demiray, U., & Tanglang, N. (2016). Taking digital learning to prison: The cases of four universities in Australia, UK, Turkey and Nigeria. E-Journal of UDEEEWANA, 2(2).
Gaes, G. G. (2008). The impact of prison education programs on post-release outcomes. paper presented at the Re-entry Roundtable on Education at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Urban Institute, March 31 and April 1, 2008.
Gardner, A. (2020). Dr. Larry Brewster and California Arts-in-Corrections: A case study in correctional arts research. Journal of Prison Education and Re-entry, 6(2), 194–200.
Gray, N., Ward, J. & Fogarty, J. (2019). Transformative learning through university and prison partnerships: Reflections from “Learning Together” pedagogical practice. Journal of Prison Education and Re-entry, 6(1), 7–23.
INP. (2019, December 30). AIOU upgrades educational facilities for jail inmates. The Nation. Retrieved from https://nation.com.pk/30-Dec-2019/aiou-upgrades-educational-facilities-for-jail-inmates-inp
International Crisis Group. (2011). Reforming Pakistan’s prison system (Report No. 212- Asia). Retrieved from https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-asia/pakistan/reforming-pakistan-s-prison-system
Issa, A. O. (2004). Practical guides to project writing for students in polytechnics, colleges and universities. Offa: Wumi Commercial.
Jovanić, G. (2011). Education in the treatment of offenders. Support for Learning, 26(2), 79–82.
Jovanić, G., Petrović, V., & Macanović, N. (2020). Freedom deprivation in prisons of Serbia. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling. 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1002/jip.1540
Jovanić, G., Nestorović, J., & Petrović, V. (2019). Comparison of risks and recidivism between convicts sentenced to prison time and house arrest. Specijalna edukacija i rehabilitacija, 18(3), 273–298.
Latif, I., Uzair-ul-Hassan, M., & Parveen, I. (2018). Educational Opportunities for Juveniles in Punjab, Pakistan-An Equity Concern. Journal of Elementary Education, 28(2), 1–19.
Ludlow, A., Armstrong, R., & Bartels, R. L. (2019). Learning together: Localism, collaboration and reflexivity in the development of prison and university learning communities. Journal of Prison Education and Re-entry, 6(1), 25–45.
Martinovic, M., Liddell, M., & Muldoon, S. D. (2018). Changing views and perceptions: The impact of the Australian inside-out prison exchange program on students. Educational Research and Evaluation, 24(6-7), 437–453.
McCray, R. (2015). Seven international prisons that put rehabilitation before punishment. Retrieved April 5, 2020 from: http://www.takepart.com/article/2015/04/21/seven-international-prisons-put-rehabilitation-punishment
Obioha, E. E. (2011). Challenges and reforms in the Nigeria prisons system. Journal of Social Sciences, 27(2): 95–109.
Ogbaka, L.C., Ewelum, J.N., & Apiti, A. (2017). Utilization of educational programmes in reformation of prison inmates in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 3(2), 86–91.
Ogundipe, O. A. (2008). Education behind bars: The Nigerian experience. The Reformer, 3(3), 32–38.
Ore, C. I. (2006). Non-formal education needs of adult inmates of Nsukka divisional prisons and The Millennium Development Goals. Journal of Adult Education in Nigeria, (NNCAE), 11, 66–75.
Pathaneni, S. (2020). Innovative phone-in radio program for prisoners enrolled as students at Indira Gandhi National Open University. Journal of Prison Education and Re-entry, 6(2), 189–193.
Schept, J. (2015). Progressive punishment: Job loss, jail growth, and the neoliberal logic of carceral expansion (Vol. 1): NY: New York University Press.
Shinji, T. (2009). Kiran libraries for children in prison in Pakistan. Convergence, 42(2-4), 161–171.
Simmons, L. (2017). The prison school: Educational inequality and school discipline in the age of mass incarceration. CA: University of California Press.
Taib, R. M. (2012). Educational provision for young prisoners: To realize rights or to rehabilitate? (Ph. D thesis). School of Law, Brunel University, UK.
Taylor, C. (2014). PET Brain Cells: Third Edition. London, UK: Prisoners' Education Trust.
United Nations Organization. (2017). Roadmap for the development of Prison-based rehabilitation programmes (Criminal Justice Handbook Series). Vienna: Author.